Tumour Pathology Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Tumour Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (28):
1

What is a neoplasm?

An abnormal growing mass of tissue (a tumour)

2

Describe the growth of tumours

Continues after the removal of any stimulus which may have caused the tumour - autonomous growth

3

What are the types of tumour?

Benign
Malignant - cancer

4

What does metastasise mean?

The ability of a cancer to spread - cancers invade adjacent tissue and grow at other sites within the body

5

What are two factors important in causation of cancers?

Environmental - diet, alcohol, obesity, smoking, exercise
Genetic - chances increase with age

6

What are the common types of cancer for men?

Prostate, lung, colon, bladder, lymph node

7

What are the common types of cancer for women?

Breast, lung, colon, uterus, ovary

8

What are the common types of cancer for both sexes?

Breast, lung, prostate, colon, melanoma

9

What are the cancers with the highest survival rate?

Melanoma, breast, uterus

10

What are the cancers with the lowest survival rate?

Lung, ovary

11

Why is it important to classify tumours?

Understanding tumour behaviour
Understanding prognosis and selected therapy

12

What are the aspects we classify tumours on?

Tissue of origin (epithelium, connective tissue,blood, lymphoid tissue, neural tissue, germ cells ....)
Benign vs Malignant

13

What are the two types of epithelium that can host cancer?

Glandular and squamous

14

What is the name for a benign and malignant glandular epithelium tumour?

Benign - Adenoma
Malignant - Adeno-Carcinoma

15

What is the name for a benign and malignant squamous epithelium tumour?

Benign - Squamous Papilloma
Malignant - Squamous Carcinoma

16

What are the names given to benign tumours for the connective tissues (Bone, Fat, Fibrous tissue)

Bone - Osteoma
Fat - Lipoma
Fibrous tissue 0 Fibroma

17

What are the names given to malignant tumours for the connective tissues (Bone, Fat, Fibrous tissue)

Bone - Osteo-sarcoma
Fat - Liposarcoma
Fibrous tissue - Fibro-sarcoma

18

What is the name given to cancer of the white blood cells? There are no know benign tumours for white blood cells?

Leukaemia

19

What is the name given to cancer of the lymphoid tissue? There are no know benign tumours for lymphoid tissue

Lynphoma

20

What are tumours of the Central nervous system called?

Astrocytoma - concepts of benign and malignant tumours don't exist in the CNS - there is a limited space that tumours don't escape out of

21

What are tumours of the peripheral nervous system called?

Schwannoma

22

Where do Germ cell tumours develop?

Ovary or Testis

23

What is the name given to germ cell tumours?

Teratomas

24

Are ovarian teratomas benign or malignant usually?

Benign

25

Are testicular teratomas benign or malignant usually?

Malignant

26

What are the features of benign and malignant tumours?

Growth pattern, presence of capsule (ring of connective tissue round the outside of a tumour), invasion, presence of metasteses (malignant if spread exists)
Differentiation, appearance of cells, function, behaviour

27

What are the features of benign tumours

Non-invasive growth pattern, usually encapsulates, no evidence of invasion, no metastases
Cells look similar to normal, well-differentiated
Function similar to normal tissue (if normal function os similar)
Rarely causes death

28

What are the features of malignant tumours?

Invasive growth pattern
No capsule, breached by tumour cells
Cells look abnormal
Cancers are poorly differentiated
Loss of normal function
Often evidence of spread of cancer
Frequently cause death