Flashcards in Tumour Pathology Deck (28):
What is a neoplasm?
An abnormal growing mass of tissue (a tumour)
Describe the growth of tumours
Continues after the removal of any stimulus which may have caused the tumour - autonomous growth
What are the types of tumour?
Malignant - cancer
What does metastasise mean?
The ability of a cancer to spread - cancers invade adjacent tissue and grow at other sites within the body
What are two factors important in causation of cancers?
Environmental - diet, alcohol, obesity, smoking, exercise
Genetic - chances increase with age
What are the common types of cancer for men?
Prostate, lung, colon, bladder, lymph node
What are the common types of cancer for women?
Breast, lung, colon, uterus, ovary
What are the common types of cancer for both sexes?
Breast, lung, prostate, colon, melanoma
What are the cancers with the highest survival rate?
Melanoma, breast, uterus
What are the cancers with the lowest survival rate?
Why is it important to classify tumours?
Understanding tumour behaviour
Understanding prognosis and selected therapy
What are the aspects we classify tumours on?
Tissue of origin (epithelium, connective tissue,blood, lymphoid tissue, neural tissue, germ cells ....)
Benign vs Malignant
What are the two types of epithelium that can host cancer?
Glandular and squamous
What is the name for a benign and malignant glandular epithelium tumour?
Benign - Adenoma
Malignant - Adeno-Carcinoma
What is the name for a benign and malignant squamous epithelium tumour?
Benign - Squamous Papilloma
Malignant - Squamous Carcinoma
What are the names given to benign tumours for the connective tissues (Bone, Fat, Fibrous tissue)
Bone - Osteoma
Fat - Lipoma
Fibrous tissue 0 Fibroma
What are the names given to malignant tumours for the connective tissues (Bone, Fat, Fibrous tissue)
Bone - Osteo-sarcoma
Fat - Liposarcoma
Fibrous tissue - Fibro-sarcoma
What is the name given to cancer of the white blood cells? There are no know benign tumours for white blood cells?
What is the name given to cancer of the lymphoid tissue? There are no know benign tumours for lymphoid tissue
What are tumours of the Central nervous system called?
Astrocytoma - concepts of benign and malignant tumours don't exist in the CNS - there is a limited space that tumours don't escape out of
What are tumours of the peripheral nervous system called?
Where do Germ cell tumours develop?
Ovary or Testis
What is the name given to germ cell tumours?
Are ovarian teratomas benign or malignant usually?
Are testicular teratomas benign or malignant usually?
What are the features of benign and malignant tumours?
Growth pattern, presence of capsule (ring of connective tissue round the outside of a tumour), invasion, presence of metasteses (malignant if spread exists)
Differentiation, appearance of cells, function, behaviour
What are the features of benign tumours
Non-invasive growth pattern, usually encapsulates, no evidence of invasion, no metastases
Cells look similar to normal, well-differentiated
Function similar to normal tissue (if normal function os similar)
Rarely causes death