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Principles of Disease > Storing and Using Genetic Information > Flashcards

Flashcards in Storing and Using Genetic Information Deck (17):
1

Which Carbon is responsible for the difference between Deoxyribose and Ribose?

Carbon 2 DNA has an H OH in RNA

2

Which base swaps in with Thymine in RNA?

Uracil

3

What takes place in the Nucleus?

DNA replication and transcription

4

What is chromatin?

The material of which chromosomes are composed, including protein, DNA and RNA

5

What are the different forms of chromatin?

Heterochromatin (condensed) and euchromatin (extended) - active

6

How is chromatin made more accessible to enzymes? The folding in combination with the nucleosomes pose barriers to enzymes

Histones are enzymatically modified Histones are displaced by chromatin remodelling complexes

7

Why is DNA replication said to be semi-conservative?

one-half of each new molecule of DNA is old; one-half new

8

When is DNA most tightly packed?

During metaphase

9

What portion of DNA is a coding region?

Exons

10

What portion of DNA is a non-coding region?

Introns

11

What is meant by degeneracy?

Amino acids can be encoded for by more than one codon, with the exception of methionine and tryptophan

12

Which gene is responsible for sickle cell anaemia?

Mutated hemaglobin gene

13

What is alternative splicing?

It is when the exons are reconnected in multiple ways during RNA splicing, different mRNA's may be translated into different protein isoforms - single gene can code for multiple proteins.

14

Where is an anti-codon found?

On the tRNA molecule

15

What is the major role of tRNA?

Translation of mRNA

16

What is rRNA?

Ribosomal RNA rRNA is essential for amino acid and protein synthesis and is a key component of translation in the cell

17

What is a polysome?

When several ribosomes translate mRNA at the same time