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Flashcards in Gram Negative Bacteria Deck (76):
1

Neisseria Meningitidis - meningitis and septicaemia

Neisseria ghonorrhoeae - urethritis in men - pelvic inflammatory disease

What are the forms of Neisseria spp that are of clinical significance?

2

Aerobic gram negative cocci

What type of bacteria are Neisseria spp and Moraxella catarrhalis?

3

Can't be stained with gram stains

Can't be cultured under standard methods Mycobacterium Spirochaetes Chlamydia

What is meant by miscellaneous bacteria

4

Does salmonella ferment lactose?

NO

5

Yes

Does E Coli ferment lactose?

6

Klebsiella - UTI and pneumonia

Proteus spp - UTI

What other commensals of the gut exist? (apart from E.Coli)

7

NO

Does salmonella ferment lactose?

8

What type of organisms is pseudomonas?

Strict aerobic bacilli water and soil organisms

Contaminates medical equipment

Hospital acquired cause of sepsis: pneumonia, UTI Respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis

9

What causes tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

10

Large (coliforms)

 

Small

What are the sub divisions of gram negative aerobic bacilli?

11

What is the test for syphilis?

Serology, nucleic amplification tests

12

What type of organism is E.Coli?

Coliform - large gram negative aerobic bacilli

13

Treponem pallidum - syphilis

Borrelia burgdorferi - lymes disease

Give an example of a spirochaetes

14

Bacteriodes Fragilis - normal colonic flora

 

Causes intra-abdominal abscess

What are the important anaerobes? (BACILLI)

15

Primary - Non-painful skin legions

Secondary - Systemic illness and rash

Latent - symptomatic episodes may occur

Tertiary - central nervous system Congenital - stillbirth, neonatal death or disease

What are the stages of syphilis?

16

Prevotella - cause of dental abscess (pus that forms in the teeth and gums), aspiration pneumonia, human and animal bite infections.

 

 

Name an oral anaerobe

17

What are the strains of chlamydia that cause respiratory infection?

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila psittaci - contact with birds

18

Urinary tract infection

Enterotoxogenic E.Coli - commonest cause of travellers diarrhoea

Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli - Bloody diarrhoea Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

What is the infection usually associated with Ecoli?

19

Gut pathogen Coliform

What type of organism is salmonella?

20

Name a microaerophilic spiral bacilli

Helicobacter pylori - natural habitat is human stomach - damages mucosa and causes ulcers

 

 

21

Mycobacterium leprae

What causes leprosy?

22

What causes leprosy?

Mycobacterium leprae

23

What is the ZN stain used for?

Mycobacterium species

24

What family do Coliforms belong in?

Enterobacteriaceae Inhabitants of the gut

25

What strain of chlamydia is responsible for the Ophthalmic and genital tract infection?

Chlamydia trachomatis - trachoma (tropical eye infections) Can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility

26

What does salmonella cause?

Enterocollitis, with or without bloody diarrhoea

27

What does typhoid cause?

Fever and constipation

28

Serology, nucleic amplification tests

What is the test for syphilis?

29

What are the sub divisions of gram negative aerobic bacilli?

Large (coliforms)

 

Small

30

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

What causes tuberculosis?

31

What type of organism is salmonella?

Gut pathogen Coliform

32

Coliform - large gram negative aerobic bacilli

What type of organism is E.Coli?

33

Obligate intracellular bacteria

What type of bacteria is chlamydia?

34

What type of bacteria is chlamydia?

Obligate intracellular bacteria

35

1. Skin rash

2. Systemic illness - cardiac or neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms

3. Chronic disease - skin, nervous system or joint abnormalities

What are the stages of lymes disease?

36

Present from birth

Define congenital

37

Enterocollitis, with or without bloody diarrhoea

What does salmonella cause?

38

Give an example of a spirochaetes

Treponem pallidum - syphilis

Borrelia burgdorferi - lymes disease

39

What does Moraxella Catarrhalis cause?

Respiratory tract infections

40

Helicobacter pylori - natural habitat is human stomach - damages mucosa and causes ulcers

 

 

Name a microaerophilic spiral bacilli

41

What are the virulence mechanisms of Escherichia coli?

pili, capsule, endotoxin and exotoxins produced

42

Lactose fermentation

What is the test for gram negative bacilli?

43

What does microaerophilic mean?

Requires little free oxygen

44

Strict aerobic bacilli water and soil organisms

Contaminates medical equipment

Hospital acquired cause of sepsis: pneumonia, UTI Respiratory infection in cystic fibrosis

What type of organisms is pseudomonas?

45

Fever and constipation

What does typhoid cause?

46

What are the important anaerobes? (BACILLI)

Bacteriodes Fragilis - normal colonic flora

 

Causes intra-abdominal abscess

47

Define congenital

Present from birth

48

What are the gram negative bacilli other than coliforms?

Bordetella pertusis - whooping cough

Haemophilus infuenzae - cocco bacilli (mixed appearance) respiratory tract infection - capsulate form formerly an important cause of meningitis

49

What is meant by miscellaneous bacteria

Can't be stained with gram stains

Can't be cultured under standard methods Mycobacterium Spirochaetes Chlamydia

50

Respiratory tract infections

What does Moraxella Catarrhalis cause?

51

Salmonella typhi

What is the cause of typhoid fever?

52

What is the test for gram negative bacilli?

Lactose fermentation

53

Campylobacter - commonest cause of bacterial diarrhoea in the UK

Name a curved microaerophilic gram negative bacilli

54

Name a curved microaerophilic gram negative bacilli

Campylobacter - commonest cause of bacterial diarrhoea in the UK

55

Chlamydophila pneumoniae

Chlamydophila psittaci - contact with birds

What are the strains of chlamydia that cause respiratory infection?

56

How is diagnosis of chlamydia achieved?

Nucleic acids amplification tests

57

What are the stages of lymes disease?

1. Skin rash

2. Systemic illness - cardiac or neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms

3. Chronic disease - skin, nervous system or joint abnormalities

58

What are the forms of Neisseria spp that are of clinical significance?

Neisseria Meningitidis - meningitis and septicaemia

Neisseria ghonorrhoeae - urethritis in men - pelvic inflammatory disease

59

What are the stages of syphilis?

Primary - Non-painful skin legions

Secondary - Systemic illness and rash

Latent - symptomatic episodes may occur

Tertiary - central nervous system Congenital - stillbirth, neonatal death or disease

60

What type of bacteria are Neisseria spp and Moraxella catarrhalis?

Aerobic gram negative cocci

61

Does E Coli ferment lactose?

Yes

62

What is used to detect spirochaetes?

Dark ground microscopy or immunofluorescence - Often diagnosed by serology

63

Mycobacterium species

What is the ZN stain used for?

64

What is the cause of typhoid fever?

Salmonella typhi

65

What other commensals of the gut exist? (apart from E.Coli)

Klebsiella - UTI and pneumonia

Proteus spp - UTI

66

Bordetella pertusis - whooping cough

Haemophilus infuenzae - cocco bacilli (mixed appearance) respiratory tract infection - capsulate form formerly an important cause of meningitis

What are the gram negative bacilli other than coliforms?

67

Name an oral anaerobe

Prevotella - cause of dental abscess (pus that forms in the teeth and gums), aspiration pneumonia, human and animal bite infections.

 

 

68

Name another gut pathogen that isn't salmonella or E.Coli

Shigella - diarrhoea, dysentery

69

Chlamydia trachomatis - trachoma (tropical eye infections) Can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility

What strain of chlamydia is responsible for the Ophthalmic and genital tract infection?

70

Enterobacteriaceae Inhabitants of the gut

What family do Coliforms belong in?

71

What is the infection usually associated with Ecoli?

Urinary tract infection

Enterotoxogenic E.Coli - commonest cause of travellers diarrhoea

Enterohaemorrhagic E.coli - Bloody diarrhoea Haemolytic uraemic syndrome

72

Dark ground microscopy or immunofluorescence - Often diagnosed by serology

What is used to detect spirochaetes?

73

pili, capsule, endotoxin and exotoxins produced

What are the virulence mechanisms of Escherichia coli?

74

Requires little free oxygen

What does microaerophilic mean?

75

Shigella - diarrhoea, dysentery

Name another gut pathogen that isn't salmonella or E.Coli

76

Nucleic acids amplification tests

How is diagnosis of chlamydia achieved?