Tumour Pathology 2 Flashcards Preview

Principles of Disease > Tumour Pathology 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 2 Deck (35):
1

What are the altered genetic associated with cancer?

Loss of tumour suppressor genes
Gain of function of oncogenes

2

What is the altered cellular function of cancer cells?

Tumour-related proteins

3

Describe morphology

Abnormal

4

Is there a unique feature specific to cancer cells?

No, but they are capable of independent growth

5

Describe adhesion in cancer cells

Los of cell-to-cell adhesion
Altered cell-to-matrix adhesion

6

What are the tumour biomarkers?

Tumour-related proteins

7

What are the different categories of tumour biomarkers?

Onco-fetal proteins
Oncogenes
Growth factors and receptors

8

What is the clinical utility of tumour biomarkers?

Screening
Diagnosis
Prognostic - identifying patients with a specific outcome
Predictive - identifying patients who will respond to a particular therapy

9

What is the biomarker for Teratoma of testis and hepatocellular carcinoma?

Alpha-fetoprotein

10

What is the biomarker for colorectal cancer?

Carcino-embryonic antigen

11

What is the biomarker for Breast cancer?

Oestrogen receptor

12

What is the biomarker for Prostate cancer?

Prostate specific antigen

13

What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for colorectal cancer?

kras

14

What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for lung cancer?

EGFR - epidermal growth factor receptor

15

What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for breast cancer and gastric cancer?

Her2

16

What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for melanoma?

Braf

17

What is the variation in size and shape of cancer cells referred to as?

Pleomorphism

18

Is mitoses present in cancer cells?

Yes but is abnormal

19

What is tumour growth a balance between?

Angiogenesis
Apoptosis

20

What is angiogenesis?

New blood vessel formation by tumours, required to sustain tumour growth

21

What is the downside on human health brought about by angiogenesis?

Provides a route for release of tumour cells into circulation

22

What is the relationship between blood vessels and prognosis?

More blood vessels -poorer prognosis

23

What is involved in the response to chemo-radiotherapy?

Apoptosis

24

What is the major clinical problem of cancer?

Formation of metastatic (secondary) tumour

25

What is the effect of metastasis on matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes?

Increased

26

What is the effect of metastasis on cell-to-cell cell-to-matrix adhesion?

It is altered

27

What are the various modes of spread of cancer?

Local
Lymphatic
Blood
Trans-coelomic spread

28

What is the intermediate tissue for tumour invasion of lymph/blood vessels?

Connective tissue

29

What are the stages of metastasis via lymphatics?

Adherence of tumour cells to lymph vessels

Invasion from lymphatics

Invasion into lymph nodes

Formation of metastasis in lymph node

Clinical evidence of metastasis

30

What are the stages of metastasis via blood?

Same process but substituting the lymph vessels with blood vessels

31

What is Trans-coelomic spread?

Spread of tumour cells across the body cavities

Pleural or peritoneal cavities

32

Which organs show a Trans-coelomic spread?

Lung, stomach, colon and ovary

33

What are the common sites of metastasis?

Liver, lung, brain, bone (axial skeleton)
Adrenal gland

34

What are the uncommon sites for metastasis?

Spleen, kidney, skeletal muscles, heart

Relates to blood flow and the environmental factors of each organ

35

Where do breast? prostate? and colorectal cancer often metastasis to?

Bone
Bone
Liver