Flashcards in Tumour Pathology 2 Deck (35):
What are the altered genetic associated with cancer?
Loss of tumour suppressor genes
Gain of function of oncogenes
What is the altered cellular function of cancer cells?
Is there a unique feature specific to cancer cells?
No, but they are capable of independent growth
Describe adhesion in cancer cells
Los of cell-to-cell adhesion
Altered cell-to-matrix adhesion
What are the tumour biomarkers?
What are the different categories of tumour biomarkers?
Growth factors and receptors
What is the clinical utility of tumour biomarkers?
Prognostic - identifying patients with a specific outcome
Predictive - identifying patients who will respond to a particular therapy
What is the biomarker for Teratoma of testis and hepatocellular carcinoma?
What is the biomarker for colorectal cancer?
What is the biomarker for Breast cancer?
What is the biomarker for Prostate cancer?
Prostate specific antigen
What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for colorectal cancer?
What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for lung cancer?
EGFR - epidermal growth factor receptor
What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for breast cancer and gastric cancer?
What are the predictive tumour biomarkers for melanoma?
What is the variation in size and shape of cancer cells referred to as?
Is mitoses present in cancer cells?
Yes but is abnormal
What is tumour growth a balance between?
What is angiogenesis?
New blood vessel formation by tumours, required to sustain tumour growth
What is the downside on human health brought about by angiogenesis?
Provides a route for release of tumour cells into circulation
What is the relationship between blood vessels and prognosis?
More blood vessels -poorer prognosis
What is involved in the response to chemo-radiotherapy?
What is the major clinical problem of cancer?
Formation of metastatic (secondary) tumour
What is the effect of metastasis on matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes?
What is the effect of metastasis on cell-to-cell cell-to-matrix adhesion?
It is altered
What are the various modes of spread of cancer?
What is the intermediate tissue for tumour invasion of lymph/blood vessels?
What are the stages of metastasis via lymphatics?
Adherence of tumour cells to lymph vessels
Invasion from lymphatics
Invasion into lymph nodes
Formation of metastasis in lymph node
Clinical evidence of metastasis
What are the stages of metastasis via blood?
Same process but substituting the lymph vessels with blood vessels
What is Trans-coelomic spread?
Spread of tumour cells across the body cavities
Pleural or peritoneal cavities
Which organs show a Trans-coelomic spread?
Lung, stomach, colon and ovary
What are the common sites of metastasis?
Liver, lung, brain, bone (axial skeleton)
What are the uncommon sites for metastasis?
Spleen, kidney, skeletal muscles, heart
Relates to blood flow and the environmental factors of each organ