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Flashcards in Introduction to Parasites Deck (26):
1

What are the three classes of parasites?

Protozoa, helminths and arthropods

2

Describe the structure of protozoa

Single celled organisms

3

What is the mode of protozoa transmission?

Intestinal parasites - fecal - oral route

Blood parasites - arthropod vector

4

What is the species responsible for malaria?

Plasmodium falciparum

5

What is the vector for malaria?

Anopheles mosquito

6

What is the life cycle of malaria?

Sporozoites are injected under the skin by the mosquito, they travel through blood and enter the liver, they mature in the liver and re-enter the circulation as merozoites. Merozoites invade red cells, multiply and lyse cells

7

What is the diagnosis of amoebic dysentery?

Cysts in formed stool - microscopy

Diarrhoea with blood and pus

8

What type of disease is Amoebic Dysentery responsible for?

Intestinal and extra-intestinal infections

Liver abscess in late disease

9

What infection is caused by the bite of sandflies?

Leishmaniasis

10

What is cutaneous or muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis characterised by?

Skin or mucosal ulceration

11

What is Viceral leishmaniasis caused by?

Fever weight loss and hepato-splenomegaly

12

How is diagnosis of leishmaniasis achieved?

Histology of biopsy material

13

What are the different types of helminths?

Nematodes, Cestodes, Trematodes

14

What are Nematodes?

Round worms

15

What are Cestodes

Tapeworms

16

What are trematodes

Flatworms

17

What is the diagnosis of nematodes?

Press adhesive sellotape against perianal region

18

What is the lifecycle of Ascaris lumbricoides - nematode?

Ingested eggs hatch in the intestine, larvae carried by circulation to the lungs, swallowed again, adult worms develop in and inhabit small intestine

19

What are the various methods of ingesting a tapeworm?

Larval cysts ingested in meat, ingest eggs in dog faeces

20

Where is there a high incidence of Schistosomiasis

Near fresh water, snail is important in the life cycle intermediate host

21

What accompanies a helminth infection?

Eosinophilia
Elevated IgE

22

How is diagnosis of a parasite infection achieved?

Microscopy of parasites cysts and ova

Serology - detection of antibodies

Blood films for malaria

23

Are cultures of parasites possible?

rarely

24

Schistosomiasis is what kind of parasite?

Flatworm (trematode)

25

Ascarius lumbricoides is what kind of parasite?

Round worm (nematode)

26

What kind of parasite infection is leishmaniasis and amoebic dysentry?

Protozoal