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Flashcards in Unit 1 Deck (44):
1

Epicardium

-Both secrete fluid into the pericardial cavity
-Lubricate & cushion

2

Superior Vena Cava:

returns upper body blood to the heart

3

Inferior Vena Cava:

returns lower body blood to the heart

4

Right Atrium:

-receives Vena Cavae blood, pumps blood to RV
-pumps blood through the Tricuspid Valve into RV

5

Right Ventricle:

-receives RA blood pumps blood to pulmonary trunk
-pumps blood through the Pulmonary Semilunar Valve into the Pulmonary Trunk

6

Pulmonary Trunk:

receives RV blood, sends blood to the Pulmonary Arteries

7

Pulmonary Arteries:

receive Pulmonary Trunk blood, send blood to the lungs

8

Pulmonary Veins:

receive blood from the lungs, send blood to LA

9

Left Atrium:

-receives blood from Pulmonary Veins, pumps blood to LV
-pumps blood through the Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve into LV

10

Left Ventricle:

-receives LA blood, pumps blood to the Aorta
-pumps blood through Aortic Semilunar Valve into the Aorta

11

Aorta:

receives LV blood, sends blood to all body cells

12

Coronary Arteries:

receive aortic blood, send blood to cardiac muscle

13

Cardiac Veins:

receive cardiac muscle blood, send blood to the Coronary Sinus

14

Coronary Sinus

receives Cardiac Vein blood, sends blood to RA

15

Chordae Tendineae:

attach valves to Papillary Muscles attach into the ventricular walls

16

Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve:

prevents backflow of blood from LV to LA

17

Tricuspid Valve:

prevents backflow of blood from RV into the RA

18

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve:

prevents blood backflow between RV & the Pulmonary Trunk

19

Aortic Semilunar Valve:

prevents blood backflow between LV & the Aorta

20

Papillary Muscles:

attach chordae tendineae into the ventricular walls

21

Arteries:

-efferent vessels of the cardiovascular system
-carries blood away from the heart

22

Veins:

-afferent vessels
- carries blood back to the heart.

23

Capillaries

thin-walled vessels that connect the smallest arteries to the smallest veins

24

Arterioles

smallest arteries

25

Venules

smallest veins

26

Pulmonary Circulation

-Transports blood (low in oxygen) from RV to the lungs
-Exchange of oxygen & carbon dioxide occurs between alveoli & blood in pulmonary capillaries
-Returns blood to LA

27

Pulmonary Circuit Summary

Right Atrium → Tricuspid Valve → Right Ventricle → Pulmonary Semilunar Valve → Pulmonary Trunk → Pulmonary Arteries → Lungs → Pulmonary Veins → Left Atrium

28

Systemic Circulation

-Provides blood to all body tissues
-Supplies oxygen & other nutrients
-Removes carbon dioxide & wastes
-Arises from aorta & ends in RA
-Blood goes through the pulmonary circulation before it enters the systemic circulation

29

Systemic Circuit Summary

Left Atrium → Bicuspid Valve → Left Ventricle → Aortic Semilunar Valve → Aorta → All Body Cells → Superior & Inferior Vena Cavae → Right Atrium

30

Coronary Circulation

-Supplies oxygen & nutrients to myocardium of heart
-Removes carbon dioxide & wastes from myocardium

31

Coronary Circuit Summary

Aorta → Coronary Arteries → Cardiac Muscle → Cardiac Veins → Coronary Sinus → RA

32

Collateral Circulation

-Most organs receive blood from more than one arterial branch
-Arterial anastomosis - where arteries supplying the same area join together
-Arterial anastomoses provide alternative (collateral) ways for tissues to receive O2 & nutrients if one artery is blocked
-Prevents or reduces the heart area affected by a myocardial infarction (MI)
-Circle of Willis: is an anastomosis which ↓ the chance of a restriction of the supply of O2 to the brain
-Aerobic exercises promote collateral circulation (↓risk of an MI)

33

Hepatic Portal Circulation

-Portal: refers to veins which carry blood to organs other than the heart
-Materials absorbed into the blood in the digestive system are carried into veins which anastomose into a single hepatic portal vein which leads to the liver
-Those materials are processed before the blood continues on to the heart

34

Hepatic Portal Circuit Summary

Aorta → Celiac Artery → Intestines → Hepatic Portal Vein → Liver → Hepatic Vein → Inferior Vena Cava → Right Atrium

BE ABLE TO DRAW DIAGRAM

35

Tetralogy of Fallot 4 abnormalities

-Narrowing of the pulmonary semilunar valve (↓blood flow to the lungs)
-RV wall hypertrophy (thickened RV wall)
-Ventricular septal defect
-Aorta shifted to the right (removes mixed blood from both ventricles)

36

Lymphatic System Functions:

-Drain fluid from around cells
-Absorb lipids from the small intestine
-Circulate & filter lymph fluid
-Provide immunity & protection

37

Lymph

-Fluid portion of the lymphatic system
-Similar to blood plasma & interstitial fluid

38

Lymph Vessels

Transport lymph fluid

39

Lymph Nodes

-Filter microorganisms & cancer cells from the lymph
-Location of lymphocytes & monocytes

40

Thymus

-Programs some lymphocytes to develop into T-cells (T-lymphocytes)
-Thymus decreases in size as we age; not present in adults

41

Spleen

-Filters blood of worn out RBCs & bacteria
-Location for lymphocytes & monocytes

42

Lacteals

special lymphatic vessels absorb dietary lipids that are not absorbed by the blood capillaries

43

Edema

Accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces (spaces between cells)

44

Causes of Edema:

-Hypertension (↑BP)
-Blockage of lymphatic vessel (parasite)
-↑Pressure in veins
-Low levels of blood albumin (protein made by the liver)
-↓Fluid returning to blood capillaries
-Inflammation (↑pore size)
-Blood clot (↑upstream pressure)