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Flashcards in Unit 9 Deck (179):
1

Function of Penis

Urination & copulation

2

Male Urethra Functions

Transport urine & semen

3

Scrotum Function

Maintain temperature of testes 2-30 C below body (core) temperature

4

Testis Function

Produce spermatozoa & testosterone

5

Seminiferous Tubules Function

Produce spermatozoa

6

Epididymis Function

Spermatozoa storage & maturation

7

Vas Deferens Function

Transport spermatozoa to urethra

8

Seminal Vesicles Function

Produce 60% of alkaline semen & fructose

9

Prostate Function

Produces: ⅓ of semen, nutrients & enzymes to activate spermatozoa

10

Bulbourethral Glands of Cowper Function

Secrete mucus + alkaline buffers to neutralize male urethral acidic pH & female vaginal acidic pH

11

Vagina Function

Receives penis & semen; birth canal; passageway for menstrual flow

12

Uterus Function

Passageway for sperm + blastocyst; nourish fetus; expel fetus during labor

13

Cervix Function

Secretes mucus to block the cervical canal (uterine entrance)

14

Endometrium Function

Uterine lining; pre-embryo implantation; degraded during menstruation

15

Myometrium Function

Smooth muscle contractions during parturition (labor & delivery)

16

Fallopian Tubes/Oviducts Function

Passageway for oocyte + spermatozoa; normal fertilization site (distal ⅓ oviduct)

17

Ovaries Function

Produce oocytes + estrogen + progesterone (hormones) for cycle control

18

Fimbria Function

Cover ovarian surface to draw oocyte into oviduct after ovulation

19

Mitosis (Nuclear Division)

-Used by many body cells
-Growth, replacement, repair
-No change in chromosome number (46)

20

Mitosis: diploid (2n) or haploid (n)

Diploid (2n)

21

Meiosis (Reduction Division)

-Only in gonads (gamete production)
-Synapsis & shuffling of genetic information provides variation
-Reduction in number of chromosomes from 46 (diploid/2n) to 23 (haploid/1n)

22

Meiosis: diploid (2n) or haploid (n)

haploid (n)

23

Direct Gene Activation:

-Steroid hormones (lipid/nonpolar) diffuse through cell membranes (phospholipid bilayer)
-Hormone binds to intracellular receptor
-Activated receptor binds w/ gene & turns it on or off (stimulate or inhibit function)

24

Second Messenger Systems:

-Protein-based hormones (polar)
-Cannot pass through cell membrane
-Hormone binds to cell membrane receptor
-Activates membrane proteins producing cAMP
-cAMP acts as a second messenger inside cell to activates kinase
-Kinase causes the cell response

25

How is Direct gene activated?

steroid hormones

26

How is Second Messenger System activated?

protein-based hormones

27

Source, Target, and Function of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH):

-Source: Hypothalamus
-Target: Anterior Pituitary
-Function:
Stimulate production & release of FSH + LH by the anterior pituitary

28

Source, Target, and Function of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (female)

-Source: Anterior Pituitary
-Target: Ovaries
-Function:
Stimulate follicle cell growth & maturation
Stimulate estrogen production by follicle cells

29

Source, Target, and Function of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) (male)

-Source: Anterior Pituitary
-Target: Seminiferous Tubules
-Function:
Stimulate spermatozoa production (spermatogenesis) by maintaining Sertoli cell health in the seminiferous tubule wall

30

Source, Target, and Function of Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

-Source: Anterior Pituitary
-Target: Ovaries
-Function:
*Stimulate primary oocytes to complete 1st meiotic division & become the secondary oocyte
*Stimulate ovulation of the oocyte
*Transforms ruptured follicle (follicle cells) → corpus luteum (yellow body)
*Stimulate estrogen & progesterone production @corpus luteum

31

Source, Target, and Function of Interstitial Cell Stimulating Hormone (ICSH)

-Source: Anterior Pituitary
-Target: Seminiferous Tubules
-Function:
*Stimulate spermatozoan production (spermatogenesis)
*Stimulate interstitial cells of Leydig to secrete testosterone

32

Sources of Estrogen

Follicle cells, Corpus Luteum, Placenta

33

Estrogen at the body cells function:

Stimulate development of female secondary sex characteristics

34

Estrogen at the uterus:

Stimulate 1st & 2nd half of cycle

35

Estrogen at the ovaries:

stimulate oogenesis

36

Estrogen at the mammary glands:

Stimulate growth of ducts & alveoli

37

Sources of Progesterone

Corpus Luteum & Placenta

38

Progesterone at the mammary glands

Stimulate development of alveoli (milk production)

39

Progesterone at the uterus

Stimulate endometrium & blood vessel growth

40

What blocks progesterone?

RU-486 (chemical abortion)

41

Source of Testosterone

Interstitial cells of Leydig

42

Testosterone at the body cells:

-Stimulate male secondary sex characteristics
-Develop genitalia, bone & muscle
-Male hair growth patterns
-↑RBC production & metabolic rate

43

Testosterone at the seminiferous tubules

Maintain spermatogenesis

44

Source of oxytocin

Hypothalamus (stored & released by posterior pituitary)

45

Oxytocin at the uterus

Stimulate uterine smooth muscle contractions (causing parturition)

46

Oxytocin at the mammary glands

Stimulate lactiferous duct smooth muscle (release milk)

47

Source of Prolactin

Anterior Pituitary

48

Prolactin at the mammary glands

Stimulate lactiferous alveoli (produce milk)

49

Source of human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

rophoblast cells of blastocyst & chorion

50

hCG at the corpus luteum

-Maintains corpus luteum so that it produces estrogen & progesterone (absence of LH) through 1st 10 wks of pregnancy
-Placenta later produces enough estrogen & progesterone to maintain endometrium…hCG mimics LH

51

Spermatogenesis-
Production:

male gametes (spermatozoa)

52

Location of spermatogenesis

seminiferous tubules of the testes

53

Process of spermatogenesis (mitosis or meiosis)

meiosis

54

Spermatogenesis time length

puberty until death

55

Spermatogenesis numbers

4 million per day

56

Oogenesis production

female gametes (oocytes)

57

Location of oogenesis

follicles of the ovaries

58

Oogenesis process (mitosis or meiosis)

Meiosis

59

oogenesis length of time

puberty until menopause

60

oogenesis numbers

1 oocyte ovulated per ovarian cycle (28 days)

61

How many spermatozoa during spermatogenesis?

23

62

How many polar body during oogenesis?

23

63

What does Hypothalamus produce?

GnRH

64

Function of the Hypothalamus?

-Stimulates FSH production (anterior pituitary)
*Starts ovarian cycle
-Stimulates LH production (anterior pituitary)
*Maintains ovarian cycle

65

What does Anterior Pituitary produce?

FSH and LH

66

What is the function of FSH from the Anterior pituitary?

-↑Follicle growth & maturation
-↑Estrogen
-↑Spermatozoan production (♂)

67

What is the function of LH from the Anterior pituitary?

-Stimulates oogenesis
-Causes ovulation
-↑Estrogen & ↑progesterone synthesis

68

Def of Spermatogonium:

Primordial stem cell in seminiferous tubules of testes (spermatozoan production)

69

Def of Oogonium:

Primordial stem cell in ovaries (primary oocyte production)

70

Def of Follicle:

Ovarian structure containing an oocyte surrounded by follicle cells (estrogen production)

71

Def of Mitosis:

Process → nucleus of a body cell divides to produce identical daughter cells (growth & repair)

72

Def go Meiosis:

Process → gamete formation w/ half the normal chromosome number (sexual reproduction)

73

Def of Oocyte:

Female gamete which has completed meiotic divisions (haploid)

74

Def of Spermatozoan:

Male gamete which has completed meiotic divisions (haploid)

75

Def of fertilization:

Fusion of haploid (1n) male & female gametes to form a diploid (2n) zygote

76

Def of Polar Bodies:

Nonfunctional & nonviable haploid female cells w/ ↓cytoplasm (produced during meiosis)

77

Def of hormone:

Chemical messenger released to blood (regulates cell function)

78

Def of semen:

Mixture of spermatozoa & fluids from ♂ reproductive glands that supplies energy & neutralizes acidic pH in reproductive tracts (activates spermatozoa)

79

Def of hyaluronidase:

Spermatozoan acrosomal enzyme that allows union of male & female gametes

80

Normal volume of ejaculate

1 - 5 mL
-60-150 million spermatozoa/mL
-60-750 million spermatozoa/ejaculate

81

Spermatozoan count of <20 million/mL =

Oligospermia (low sperm count)
-Associated w/ ↓fertility & caused by heat, lead, arsenic, drugs, marijuana (THC), cocaine & anabolic steroids
-Spermatozoa are viable in the ♀ reproductive tract for 3-7 days

82

How many oogonia are produced during the 5th month of gestation?

7 million
-Production of new oogonia then stops…forever!

83

What does oogonia become?

Oogonia become 1o oocytes & begin Meiosis I (meiosis is arrested at Prophase I)

84

How many 1 oocytes remain at birth?

2 million

85

How many 1 oocytes remain at puberty?

400,00

86

About ____ of the 400,000 1o oocytes are ovulated (1/1000), (.1%) during the reproductive years. All others (________) deteriorate (____%)

400
399,600
99.9%

87

What does hypothalamus release during the ovarian cycle?

GnRH

88

What does GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary to release ?

FSH

89

What does FSH stimulates follicle cells to grow & produce ?

estrogen

90

↑Estrogen → anterior pituitary → ___

↑LH

91

What does ↑Estrogen cause?

↑Estrogen causes LH to be released in a burst (spike) & endometrium grows

92

What does ↑LH stimulate?

↑LH stimulates 1st meiotic division of primary oocyte

93

What does ↑LH?

-↑LH causes ovulation
- ↑LH causes ruptured follicle to become a corpus luteum

94

What does corpus luteum produce?

estrogen & progesterone (endometrium grows)

95

What does estrogen and progesterone lower?

↓FSH & ↓LH production

96

What does ↓LH cause

corpus luteum to atrophy & produce ↓estrogen & ↓progesterone (hormonal crash)

97

What does ↓Estrogen & ↓progesterone cause?

endometrium to disrupt (menstruation)

98

What does ↓FSH cause?

a new cycle to begin

99

If pregnancy occurs, what does ↓estrogen & progesterone (corpus luteum deterioration) cause

endometrium to disrupt (menstruation) & terminate a pregnancy

100

If pregnancy occurs, what does blastocyst make?

human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) to maintain corpus luteum (in the absence of LH) for the 1st 10 weeks of development

101

What does hCG mimic?

LH

102

Placenta (eventually) produces enough _______ & _________ to maintain the endometrium thickness

estrogen, progesterone

103

Oral contraceptive:

-contains synthetic estrogen & progesterone
-Taken daily for 3 wks after a menstrual period
*Pill mimics Corpus Luteum effects (body thinks it is pregnant)
*Placebo pills are taken in the 4th week to permit menstruation (optional?)

104

Rhythm method

-daily measurement of oral Basal Body Temperature (BBT) upon awakening
*Ovarian steroids cause BBT changes
*↓E on the day of LH peak causes a ↓BBT
*↑P on the day after LH peak causes ↑BBT for the rest of the luteal phase

105

Menopause

-Cessation of ovarian activity & menstruation @50 yrs of age
-Ovaries are depleted of follicles
-No follicles...no estrogen

106

Menopause with ↓Estrogen causes:

-Hot flashes
-Osteoporosis
-↑Atherosclerosis (arterial plaque formation)
-↑M.I. (heart attack) risk
-↑C.V.A. (stroke) risk

107

Def of zygote

Fertilized oocyte (diploid/2n)

108

Def of cleavage:

-Mitotic divisions of zygote
-Process used to double number of cells in a pre-embryo w/ each division
2-cell →4-cell → 8-cell stages

109

Def of morula:

-16-cell cluster of pre--embryonic cells
-Produced by cleavage

110

Function of blastocyst

Fluid-filled ball of cells formed from the morula (implants in the endometrium)

111

Function of inner cell mass

Cells inside blastocyst (3 primary stem cell layers)

112

Function of trophoblast cells

-Form blastocyst outer wall (becomes chorion)
-Make hCG (mimics LH)

113

Def and function of Chorionic Villi:

-Finger-like trophoblast cell extensions anchored into endometrium
-Forms fetal portion of placenta

114

Def and function of chorion

-Outermost embryonic membrane
-Forms placenta
-Produces hCG

115

Def and function of amnion

-Innermost embryonic membrane
-Forms amniotic cavity
-Makes amniotic fluid

116

Def and function of amniotic fluid

-Protects embryo/fetus from trauma
-Permits free movement

117

Def and function of yolk sac

Provides early nutrients & RBCs

118

36 hrs after fertilization, zygote divides by mitosis (_______)
2 cells→4 cells→8 cells

cleavage

119

60 hrs after fertilization, pre-embryo develops into a 16 cell ________
Enters uterus 3 days after fertilization

morula

120

Morula becomes a _______
Implants on 6th day after fertilization

blastocyst

121

Blastocyst inner cell mass → ________

embryo

122

Trophoblast cell enzymes allow the blastocyst to digest into endometrium
____% of all lost pregnancies result from spontaneous abortions
Due to a ______________

75%, failure to implant

123

Amniocentesis

-Performed at 16 weeks of development
-Amniotic fluid has cells shed from fetus
-Genetic abnormalities are detected
-Fluid aspiration (amniocentesis)
-Examination of chromosomes from cells (karyotype)

124

Placental Exchange

-Embryo/fetus: given immunological privilege
-Protected from rejection
-Gas, nutrients & wastes are exchanged w/o blood mixing

125

Placental Hormones:
What does hCG mimic?

Lh and TSH

126

Placental Hormones: What does hCS mimic?

hGH and prolactin

127

What does hGH cause?

diabetic-like effect (gestational diabetes)
-↑Blood glucose → polyuria
-Guarantees ↑glucose for embryo/fetus

128

Placenta secretes ________ & __________ from precursors supplied by fetus & mother

↑estrogen, ↑progesterone

129

def of labor

physical work necessary to expel the fetus during childbirth

130

Describe labor

-Uterine smooth muscle contractions are stimulated by oxytocin & prostaglandins
-Hypothalamus → posterior pituitary → oxytocin
-Uterus → prostaglandins

131

Labor may start w/ ______
_______(↑cortisol) may induce labor prematurely

↑cortisol, ↑Stress

132

Name the 3 primary germ layers form (week 3)

endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm

133

Ectoderm Derivatives

-Nervous system
-Cornea & lens of the eye
-Skin, hair, nails
-Tooth enamel

134

Endoderm Derivatives

-Epithelium of: digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive tracts
-Liver, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroids, thymus

135

Mesoderm Derivatives

-Muscle
-Connective tissue
-Bone marrow & blood
-Blood vessel & lymphatic vessel endothelium
-Kidneys, gonads

136

Developmental Timing of Pre-embryo

Week 0 → 3

137

Developmental Timing of Embryo

Week 3 → 8

138

Developmental Timing of Fetus

Week 8 → full term

139

What does hypothalamus produce

oxytocin (hormone)

140

Function of Posterior of Pituitary

-Stores & releases oxytocin
-↑Uterine smooth muscle contractions during parturition
-↑Mammary gland smooth muscle contractions to eject milk

141

Function of Anterior Pituitary:

-Produces prolactin (hormone)
-↑Milk production

142

What does nursing cause?

neuroendocrine reflex

143

What is released during nursing?

Prolactin & oxytocin are released

144

What does frequent nursing delay?

menstruation

145

Breastfeeding ↓FSH

Prevents oocyte development

146

Breastfeeding ↓LH

Prevents ovulation

147

T or F: Infant immune system is not well-developed until months after delivery

TRUE

148

IgG (Immunoglobulin G) (mother) crosses placenta
-Passive immunity (up to ___ months post- delivery)

12

149

IgA (Immunoglobulin A) (lactation)
Passive immunity (up to age __ yrs)

4

150

Placental Nutrients

Vitamins, minerals, glucose, O2

151

Fetal-Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

-Growth retardation
-Mental retardation
-Anatomical abnormalities
-↑Birth defects
-Speech impairment
-Hearing impairment
-Learning, memory & attention deficits

152

Placental - Waste Products

Urea, CO2

153

Placental Function: Smoking

Nicotine, ↑CO, ↑CO2, ↓O2

154

Smoking During Pregnancy: Risks

-↑Ectopic pregnancy
-↑Placenta previa
-↑Abruptio placenta
-↓Birth weight
-↑Premature delivery
-↑Cleft lip/palate
-↑Sudden Infant Death -Syndrome (SIDS)
-↓Fetal development

155

Placental Function - Drugs

Antibiotics, cocaine, nicotine

156

Effects of Irradiation during pregnancy

-X-rays
-Gamma-rays
-Directly or indirectly affect DNA
*Mutations
-Breaks chromosomes
*Causes information deletions

157

Def Placenta Abruptio

Placental separation before delivery

158

Causes of Placenta Abruptio

-Abdominal trauma
-Hypertension
-Diabetes mellitus
-Tobacco & alcohol use

159

Def Placenta Previa

Placental growth next to opening of the uterine cervical canal

160

Risk Factors of Placenta Previa

-Prior placenta previa pregnancies
-Multiple pregnancies (twins/triplets)

161

Symptoms of Placenta Previa

sudden bleeding (painless)

162

Def of Ectopic Pregnancy

Blastocyst implanted outside of uterus

163

Causes of Ectopic Pregnancy

-Partial uterine tube blockage
*Uterine tube scarring from infection (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
*Unsuccessful tubal ligation reversal

164

Symptoms of Ectopic Pregnancy

-Abdominal or pelvic pain w/ bleeding
-Unilateral pelvic cramping

165

Gonorrhea

-Bacterium: Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Transmission:
-Sexual contact w/ infected person
-Contact w/ the bacterium in the birth canal of an infected mother

166

Pathology of Gonorrhea

Pathology: Urinary & reproductive tract inflammation, painful urination w/ purulent (pus) discharge, abdominal pain, pelvic inflammatory disease in ♀, sterility

167

Gonorrhea Newborn congenital effects

Conjunctivitis & blindness

168

Gonorrhea Treatment

-Antibiotics
-Silver Nitrate in eyes of infants

169

Syphilis

-Bacterium: Treponema pallidum
Transmission:
-Sexual contact w/ infected person
-Contact w/ the bacterium in the birth canal of an infected mother

170

Risks of syphilis

Involvement of the cardiovascular & nervous systems
Lesions develop in infected tissues
Death may eventually occur

171

Treatment of Syphilis

Antibiotics

172

Congenital Syphilis

-Transplacental transmission
-Stillborn, skin lesions, deafness, impaired vision, tooth & skeletal deformities

173

What is the most prevalent STD in the U.S.?

Chlamydia

174

Bacteria of and treatment for Chlamydia

-Bacterial Pathogen: Chlamydia trachomatis
-Treatment: Antibiotics

175

Pathology of Chlamydia

-Pathology: urethritis w/ reproductive tract complications (80% asymptomatic)
-Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy

176

Pathogen of Genital Herpes

Pathogen: Herpes Simplex Virus (Type II)

177

Risks of Genital Herpes

-Lesions occur on & around genitalia
-Lesions are recurrent & painful
-↑Cervical cancer risk (50% mortality rate)

178

How is Genial Herpes transmitted?

-Transmission from lesion secretions
-Transplacental transmission to fetus

179

Treatment of Genital Herpes

Treatment: Acyclovir (anti-viral)