Unit 11 - Endocrine System Key Terms Flashcards Preview

2020-2021 Medical Terminology > Unit 11 - Endocrine System Key Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 11 - Endocrine System Key Terms Deck (29)
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1

endocrine

body system that works with the nervous system and includes the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, and gonads.

2

hormone

the chemical secretion from an endocrine gland, a hormone changes cell functions and alters body activities.

3

acromegaly

Excessive amounts of the growth hormone from the pituitary gland are secreted during adulthood. It causes enlargement of the bone structures, especially the hands and face.

4

exophthalmos

An abnormal protrusion of the eyes, it is a symptom of excessive activity of the thyroid gland.

5

goiter

A nonconstructed term. An abnormal swelling or enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or an infection of the gland.

6

ketosis

A high level of ketone bodies in the blood and urine. It is the result of starvation, low-carb diets (where muscle and fat is being burned for fuel instead of carbohydrates), and of some forms of diabetes.

7

polydipsia

An abnormal state of excessive thirst, it sometimes accompanies disorders of the pituitary gland or pancreas.

8

adenosis

general term for any disease of a gland

9

cretinism

May result when the thyroid gland does not produce normal levels of growth hormones at birth. It results in reduced mental development and physical growth.

10

Diabetes Insipidus

Results from the under-secretion of ADH… antidiuretic hormone. Symptoms include excessive thirst and excessive urination.

11

Diabetes Mellitus

The pancreas does not produce enough insulin to metabolize carbohydrates, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Left unmanaged, it may result in kidney, nerve, or eye damage or even death.

12

Hyperadrenalism

The adrenal cortex produces too much of the hormone cortisol causing Cushing Syndrome. It is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, a round face, and muscle weakness.

13

Hypercalcemia

The parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). This causes the bones to release calcium into the bloodstream, and softening of the bones can result.

14

Hypoglycemia

This is the opposite of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. There is too much insulin production and blood sugar levels are too low.

15

Hyperthyroidism

When the thyroid gland produces too much hormone, it may result in exophthalmos (bulging eyes), goiter, rapid heart rate, and weight loss. One chronic form of this is Graves Disease.

16

Hypothyroidism

When thyroid gland activity is deficient, it results in slow heart rate, dry skin, low energy, and weight gain. A chronic form of this disease is called myxedema .

17

Pancreatitis

This is a reaction to infection or trauma, and can be life threatening. The pancreas becomes inflamed and this results in the deficient production of insulin and possibly hyperglycemia.

18

Pituitary Dwarfism

The pituitary growth hormone is deficient at birth, resulting in short stature.

19

Pituitary Gigantism

The pituitary growth hormone is abnormally high sometime before adolescence. During adulthood it results in acromegaly.

20

Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS)

When blood sugar levels are measured after a 12 hour fast, it is called a FBS. Non-fasting measurements can be self- administered with a glucose meter.

21

Hypothalamus

it's hormones keep the body stable. They influence sleep rhythms, alertness, appetite, body weight, thirst, blood pressure, heart rate, sex drive, learning, memory, mood and how the body responds to being sick.

22

Pituitary Gland

secretes hormones that control blood pressure, blood sugar levels, response to stress, menstruation, sperm production, bone growth, muscle mass, contractions during childbirth, making breastmilk and bonding between mother and baby

23

Pineal Gland

secretes melatonin to help with the sleep cycle

24

Thyroid Gland

secretes hormones that influence metabolism, bone growth, energy levels, body temperature, how the cells use oxygen, heart rate, blood flow, calcium levels, vitamin metabolism, brain development in babies and children, and reproduction

25

Parathyroid Glands

regulates calcuim levels in the blood

26

Adrenal Glands

controls the stress response and blood pressure/salt and water control, blood sugar levels, energy, development of sex organs, heart rate, attention, inflammation, development of the fetus

27

Pancreas

controls the blood sugar level

28

Ovaries (females only)

2 glands found on each side of the uterus in the pelvis. Controls female characteristics, storing and releasing eggs.

29

Testes (males only)

2 glands in the scrotum, behind the penis. Controls male characteristics, sperm production.