Unit 12 - Nervous System Key Terms 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 12 - Nervous System Key Terms 1 Deck (30)
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1

Divisions of the nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

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Central Nervous System contains...

brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System contains...

cranial nerves and spinal nerves

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Four majjor structures of the brain

cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, brain stem

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spinal cord

extends from the brain stem to the lumbar vertebra in the spinal column, protected and nourished by the meninges, relay station for sending and receiving electrical signals between the brain and body

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meninges

Three layers of protective membrane covering the brain and spinal cord
Dura mater (outermost layer)
Arachnoid (middle layer)
Pia mater (innermost layer)

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cranial nerves

12 pairs that come from the brainstem

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spinal nerves

31 pairs that emerge from the spinal cord

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sensory (afferent) neurons

neurons—to the CNS

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Motor (different) neurons

neurons—away from the CNS

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Divisions of PNS

somatic nerous system and autonomic nervous system

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Somatic nervous system (SNS)

Regulates skeletal (striated) muscles (voluntary actions) such as walking and talking

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Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

Regulates visceral (smooth) muscles (involuntary actions) such as heart rate and peristalsis, and glandular and secretory activity

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Divisions of ANS

sympathethic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system

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Sympathetic Nervous System

(fight or flight) increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, and raises blood pressure to deal with a crisis

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Parasympathetic Nervous System

(rest and digest) slows heart rate, increases glandular secretions, relaxes sphincters

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neuron

individual nerve cell, Interconnecting to form complicated networks called nerves that transmit electrical impulses throughout the body

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neuroglia

Glial cells that provide a supportive framework for neurons, Responsible for protecting against infection by performing phagocytosis (engulfing and digesting unwanted substances), Unable to transmit electrical impulses

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Four types of neurogial cells

astrocyte, microglia, oligodendrocyte, ependyma

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NTD

Neural Tube Defect

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Neural Tube Defect

Congenital deformity of the neural tube (embryonic structure that becomes the fetal brain and spinal cord)

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Anencephaly

Brain fails to form during fetal development, baby is usually stillborn or dies shortly after birth

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Spina Bifida

Abnormal opening in the vertebral column
Spinal cord and nerves may protrude
Defect covered only by the meninges

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Types of Spina Bifida

occulta, meningocele, meningomyelocele

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Spina Bifida - occulta

small gap or malformation in one or more of the spinal vertebrae, asymptomatic and no treatment required

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Spina Bifida - meningocele

protrusion of meninges through an opening in the spine

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Spina Bifida - myelomeningocele

protrusion of spinal cord and meninges through an opening in the spine

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Preventative treatment for Spina Bifida

addition of folic acid to the diet of women of childbearing age

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Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal injury or disease resulting in a lack of or decrease in function or feeling
Degree of dysfunction related to site of injury on the spinal cord (higher site associated with greater dysfunction

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Halo brace

used to immobilize the head and neck vertebrae