Unit 1.4 Introduction to organic chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 1.4 Introduction to organic chemistry Deck (56)
1

any carbon-containing liquid, solid or gas especially important for life

organic molecules

2

a molecule that's built around a carbon backbone

organic molecule

3

any molecule containing carbon except for carbon dioxide

organic molecule

4

study of carbon compounds

organic chemistry

5

has unique properties that allow it to form covalent bonds to as many as four different atoms

carbon

6

has six electrons, with 2 pairs in the first shell and 4 in the outer shell

carbon

7

in order to fill its valence shell, it needs to share four extra electrons

carbon

8

serves as the basic structural component or backbone of a macromolecule

carbon

9

individual _______ atoms have an incomplete outermost election shell

carbon

10

can form up to 4 covalent bonds with other atoms to satisfy the octet rule

carbon atoms

11

rule that aims are most stable when they hold 8 electrons in their outmost shell

octet rule

12

singly-bondedit is tetrahedral

carbon

13

angles between each bond are roughly 109.5 degrees

carbon

14

single bonds can generally rotate freely

carbon

15

what are carbon molecules linked by

a double bond

16

carbon molecules are flat true or false

true

17

Carbon atoms involved in what type of bond are able to rotate

Single bond

18

atoms that are commonly found in organic molecules are

hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon

19

the outermost shell of the atom

valance shell

20

how many electron in the valence shell of hydrogen

valence = 1

21

how many electrons in the valence shell of oxygen

valence = 2

22

how many electrons in the valence shell of nitrogen

valence = 3

23

how many electron in the valence shell of carbon

valence = 4

24

H

hydrogen

25

O

oxygen

26

N

nitrogen

27

C

carbon

28

CH4

methane

29

organic molecules consisting entirely of carbon and hydrogen

hydrocarbons

30

methane and propane are examples of

hydrocarbons

31

the chemical formula CH4 has 4 hydrogen atoms and forms a single covalent bond with carbon atom by sharing a pair of electrons, which results in a filled outermost shell is an example of

carbon atoms forming up to four covalent bonds with other atoms to satisfy the octet rule

32

we often use these in our daily lives for fuels

hydrocarbons

33

although most biological molecules contain atoms besides carbon and hydrogen, many of them have regions that resemble

hydrocarbons

34

name the variations in carbon skeletons

length, branching, double bonds, and rings

35

the many covalent bonds between the atoms in ________ store a great amount of energy, which is released when theses molecules are______

hydrocarbons, burned (oxidized)

36

the simplest hydrocarbon molecule, with a central carbon atom bonded to four different hydrogen atoms

Methane an excellent fuel

37

the backbone of the large molecules of living things and may exist in a linear carbon chains, carbon rings, or combination of them both

hydrocarbons

38

H H
I I
H---- C----C----H
I I
H H

Example of a hydrocarbon length and ethane's structural formula

39

C2H6

ethane molecular formula

40

H H H
I I I
H--C--C--C--H
I I I
H H H

Example of a hydrocarbon length and the structural formula for propane

41

H H
\ /
C======C
/ \
H H

Example of an hydrocarbon length and the structural formula for ethene (ethylene)

42

C2H4

Molecular formula for ethene (ethylene)

43

H H H H
I I I I
H--C--C--C--C--H
I I I I
H H H H

Example of hydrocarbons branching and the structural formula for Butane

44

H
I
H----C----H
I
I
H I H
I I I
H-----C---C-----C----H
I I I
H H H


Example of hydrocarbon branching and the structural formula for 2-methylpropane commonly called isobutane

45

H H H H
I I I I
H==C---C---C---C---H
I I
H H

Example of hydrocarbons double bonds and the structural formula for 1-Butene

46

H H H H
I I I I
H--C--C==C--C--H
I I
H H

Example of hydrocarbons double bonds and the structural formula for 2-BUTENE

47

Are formed by successive bonds between carbon atoms and may be branched or unbranched

hydrocarbon chains

48

when a carbon forms single bonds with other atoms, the shape is

tetrahedral

49

when 2 carbon atoms for a double bond the shape is

planar or flat

50

do single bonds rotate

yes

51

do double bonds rotate

no the atoms are locked in place

52

consist of linear chains of carbon atoms

aliphatic hydrocarbons

53

consists of closed rings carbon atoms

aromatic hydrocarbons

54

these structures are found in carbon double bonds, examples are benzene to include some amino acids and cholesterol and it derivative, hormones includes estrogen and testosterone

rings

55

beta-carotene is an example of an

hydrocarbon

56

cyclopentane, cyclohexane, benzeene, and pyridine ware examples of

carbon forming five and six membered rings