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1

Also called steroscopic microscopes

Dissecting microscopes

2

includes both scanning and transmission

electron microscopes

3

also called light microscopes

compound microscopes

4

are used to view the surface of relatively larger specimens at lower power typically no more than 10x,

dissecting microscopes

5

functions like elaborate magnifying glasses and would be used to observe the gross anatomy of a living, preserved, or dissected specimen at greater detail

dissecting microscopes

6

scientific instruments that use a beam of highly energetic electrons to examine objects on a very fine scale (up to several 100,000x

electron microscopes

7

What type of microscope do we use in lab

compound microscopes

8

Describe how the compound microscope works

compound microscopes are limited by the physics to 500x or 1000x magnification, it consists of two lenses and associated hardware that make viewing of specimen easier

9

the lower lens of the compound microscope is called

objective lens

10

the uppermost lens of the compound microscope is called

the ocular lens

11

the part through which the person looks through is

the uppermost lens which is the ocular lens

12

are mounted on a turret, allowing rapid changing

the lower lens which are the objective lens

13

name the power listed on the objective lenses scope

4x scanning power, 10x low power, 40x high power

14

hols the ocular and objective lenses in place

the body tube

15

most microbiological specimens are mounted on glass

slides

16

glass slides with cover slips are placed on

the stage

17

holds the slide firmly on the stage

usually clips or clamps

18

what two objects are located beneath the stage

a light source and a condenser lens

19

why is the compound microscope called light microscope

because it has a light source

20

why must the specimen be sliced thin

the specimen must be sliced then enough so that light can pass through the specimen to be viewed

21

focuses on light through a hole in the stage

condenser

22

what does the condenser include

an iris

23

varies the amount of light passing through a specimen

the iris

24

what happens to the light as it passes through the specimen

the goes through the objective and ocular lens and through the eye of the observer

25

this image is calculated by multiplying the magnification of the ocular by the magnification of the objective

the total magnification

26

what happens to light as it passes through any object (glass, air, specimens, etc.),

it bends

27

the bending of light is called

refraction

28

is a measurement of the extent that the substance bends light

the refractive index of a substance

29

distortion of the image

excessive refraction

30

at magnifications of less than 500x

the distortion is minimal

31

we will not view specimens at any total magnification greater than

400x

32

when magnifications are high what becomes the problem

the distortion becomes so great the image details are lost

33

helps to remedy the distortion problem by eliminating the air gaps between the specimen and the objective lens

oil immersion lens

34

the 4th objective lens is

the oil immersion lens

35

topmost series of lenses through which an object is viewed

ocular lens or eyepiece

36

what is the magnifying power of the ocular lens on your microscope

10

37

holds the nosepiece at one end and eyepiece at the other end; conducts light rays

body tube

38

supports upper parts and provides carrying handle

arm

39

objectives

objective lens, scanning, low, and high power

40

hold 4x lens used to view the whole slide

scanning power objective lens

41

Holds 10x lens used to view objects in greater detail

low-power objective

42

holds 40x lens used to view the objective in even greater detail

high- power objective

43

holds 100x lens and is used in conduction with oil to view objects with the greatest magnification

oil immersion objective lens

44

what lens are you never suppose to use

the oil immersion objective lens if your compound/light microscope has one

45

knob used to bring object into approximate focus; used only with low-power objective

coarse-adjustment knob

46

knob used to bring object into final focus

fine-adjustment knob

47

controls amount of illumination used to view the object

diaphragm or diaphragm control lever

48

an attached lamp that directs a beam of light up through the object

light source

49

the flat surface of the microscope that rests on the table

base

50

holds and supports microscope slides

stage

51

aids in the accurate position of the slide

mechanical stage

52

what structures are present to move the stage

the mechanical stage control knobs

53

should you ever use something other than the mechanical stage control knobs

NO, you should never use anything to move the stage it will cause damage to the stage

54

two knobs that are usually located below the stage. one knob controls forward/reverse and the other controls right/left

mechanical stage control knob

55

what is the first rule for microscope use

the lowest power objective should be in position booth at the beginning and end of microscope use

56

what is the second rule for microscope use

use only lens paper for cleaning the lens

57

what is the third rule for microscope use

do not tilt the microscope when viewing a wet mount

58

what is the fourth rule for microscope use

keep the stage clean and dry to prevent rust and corrosion

59

what is the fifth rule for microscope use

do not remove parts of the microscope

60

what is the sixth rule for microscope use

keep the microscope dust-free by covering it after use

61

what is the 7th rule for microscope use

report any malfunctioning when you notice it. This will benefit you and those who use the microscope after you

62

what is the should you always do before the 1st rule for focusing the microscope

always start with lowest power objective lens on you microscope or the scanning lens with the compound microscope

63

what is the first thing you do after making sure you at the lowest power objective lens when focusing the microscope

turn the nosepiece so that the lowest power lens is in straight alinement over the stage

64

what is the second rule of focusing the microscope

alway begin with focusing with lowest power objective

65

what is the 3rd rule of focusing the microscope

with the coarse-adjustment knob, lower the stage until it stops

66

what is the 4th rule of focusing the microscope

place slide on the stage and stabilize it with the clips

67

that is the 5th rule of focusing the microscope

again be sure the lowest power is in place
look grin the side
decrease the distance between the stage and the objective lens until the lens comes to an automatic stop or is no closer than 3mm above the slide

68

Why would it be a bad idea for the slide and objective lens to come into contact

you could break the slide or damage the lens

69

what is the 6th rule of focusing the microscope

while looking in to the eyepiece, rotate the diaphragm lever to give the maximum amount of light

70

what is the 7th rule of focusing the microscope

slowly increase the distance between the stage and the objective lens, using the coarse adjustment knob until the object comes into view or focus

71

what is the 8th rule of focusing the microscope

once the object is seen, you may need to adjust the amount of light. to increase or decrease the contrast rotate the diaphragm slightly

72

what is the 9th rule of focusing the microscope

use the fine-adjustment know to sharpen the focus if necessary

73

what is the 10th rule of focusing the microscope

practice having both eyes open when looking through the eyepiece, as it greatly reduces eyestrain

74

define inversion

the act of inverting something or a reversal of the normal

75

define parfocal

once the object is in focus with lowest power in our case scanning power, it should be nearly in focus with the higher power

76

How do you go from scanning power to high power

1. bring the object into focus
2. Make sure that the object is center in the field of the lowest objective
3. move to the higher objective (lower power 10x) by turning th nosepiece until you hear or feel it click into place
4. Do not change the focus
5. if any adjustment is needed use only the fine-adjustment knob
6. remember always use fine-adjustment for higher powers
7. repeat steps 2 and 4`
8. when you finish your observation rotate the nosepiece until the lowest power objective clicks into place

77

How is total magnification calculated

by multiplying the magnification of the ocular lens (eyepiece) by the magnification of the objective lens

78

power of objective x power of ocular =

total magnification

79

what is the power of ocular

10

80

4x10 =

scanning 4 x 10 power of ocular = 40

81

10 x 10 =

low 10 x 10 power of ocular = 100

82

40 x 10 =

high 10 x 10 power of ocular = 400

83

How do properly put up your microscope?

1. Remove any slides on the stage.
2. Make sure the scanning objective is locked in place.
3. Returned all slides to the correct slot in the slide tray.
4. If you made any wet mounts, make sure to clean the slide and cover slip and return them to the tray
5. If you break any slides or cover slips, throw them away into the trash labeled GLASS ONLY
6. Center the mechanical stage
7. Lower the mechanical stage or raise the nosepiece
8. Turn off the scope (light source)
9. Wrap and tie the cord using the plastic ties provided with the cord. DON'T WRAP CORD AROUND ANY PART OF THE MICROSCOPE
10. Place dust cover over microscope
11. Carry microscope with two hands and by the base. Store with the number that corresponds to the number on the desk
12. Make sure cord is on the shelf not hanging
13. Make sure arm is facing out. when do properly the # on the microscope base that correspondss with your station number can be seeen

84

what is biochemistry

the study of the chemistry of life

85

all living organisms consists of

organic compounds called carbon

86

molecules are made of smaller subunits called

monomers

87

what are known as the building blocks

monomers

88

monomers or building blocks line together to form

larger molecules called polymers

89

name the four class biological molecules are divided into macromolecules

1. lipids which includes fats, waxes, and oils
2. carbohydrates which are compromised of sugars that form starch and cellulose
3. Proteins which are composed of amino acids
4. Nucleic acids which include DNA and RNA

90

includes fasts, oils, steroids, waxes

lipids

91

lipids are the main components of the

plasma membrane of all living cells

92

the lipids found in plants are

oils

93

the lipids found in animals are

fats

94

are solids at room tempreature

oils are liquids

95

Lipids are _______, ________

non-polar, hydrophobic, they do not dissolve in water

96

when doing the lipid experiment using the full pipette of water and the full pipette full of vegetable oil to the same tube. What property of lipids explain the results you obtained

non-polar, hydrophobic, because lipids do not dissolve in water

97

is there anyway you can dissolve the oil in water

through use of detergent, soap and or dishwashing liquid

98

what is Sudan IV used to identify

the presence of a fat or oil

99

Using sudan IV what color was the lipid layer

hot pink

100

what color was the water layer

cloudy white

101

Sudan IV indicates the presence of what macromolecule

lipids

102

What property does Sudan IV have in order to react with this macromolecule?

neutral and hydrophobic

103

can be simple sugars or polymers made up of many sugar units

carbohydrates

104

carbohydrates are organic molecules

made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen

105

simplest sugars are

monosaccharides

106

maonosaccharides are comprised of

one sugar unit

107

most common monosaccharide is

glucose

108

what is the function of glucose

serves as the immediate source of energy

109

the primary form of sugar stored in the human body

glucose

110

the main sugar found in most fruits

frutose

111

What is the molecular molecule for glucose and fructose

C6H12O6

112

how are glucose and fructose different

Fructose and glucose have the same molecular formula but differ structurally

113

CH2OH
I
H / C ------------O
I / I \ H
C H \ I
I \OH H / C
OH I I I
C _____ C OH
I I
H OH

GLUCOSE

C6H12O6

114


CH2OH O CH2OH
I
I

Frutose
C6H12O6

115

What is the difference between glucose and fructose?

different structures or structural formulas

116

how many carbon atoms do glucose and fructose have

6

117

What is the molecular formula for glucose

C6H12O6

118

What is the molecular formula for fructose?

C6H12O6

119

Can be bonded together to form

monosaccharides

120

what contains two sugar units linked by a glycosidic bond

disaccharides

121

table sugar

sucrose

122

in seeds

maltose

123

milk sugar

lactose

124

is a disaccharide that consists that consists of glucose unit bonded to a fructose unit

common table sugar

125

sucrose is made of what two monosaccharides?

glucose and fructose

126

what is the molecular formula of sucrose

C12 H22 O11

127

what molecule must be lost in order to produce sucrose

one molecule of H2O must be lost

128

The joining of two monosaccharides to produce a disaccharide occurs through a

dehydration reactions

129

a indicator for monosaccharides

Benedict's solution

130

what is the positive indicator for monosaccharaides

orange

131

would you expect to see the same results in the Benedicts solution for sucrose as the sample

no because there is a difference in structure and structural formula

132

when using Benedict's soution for sucrose what color do you observe

blue

133

what does the results tell you about Benedict's solution as an indicator?

it allows the you to detect the difference between a monosaccaride and disaccharide

134

If more than two sugar units are joined by a glycosidic bond, the carbohydrate is called a

polysaccharide

135

what are some examples of polysaccharides

glycogen, starch, and cellulose

136

the polysaccharide found in animals

glycogen

137

the polysaccharide found only in plants and cellulose

starch

138

is a polysaccharide only in the cell walls of plants

starch

139

the principal polysaccharide used by plants to store glucose for later use as energy

starch

140

often stores starch in seeds or other specialized organs

plants

141

common sources of starch include rice, beans, wheat, corn potatoes etc.

plants often store starch in seeds or other specialized organs

142

What happens when humans eat starch

an enzyme that occurs in saliva and in the intestines called amylase breaks the bonds via hydrolysis reactions between the repeating glucose units this allowing sugar to be stored into the blood stream.

143

an enzyme that occurs in saliva and in the intestines called amylase breaks the bonds via hydrolysis reactions between the repeating glucose units this allowing sugar to be stored into the blood stream.

what happens when humans eat starch

144

the enzyme that occurs in saliva and in the intestines is called

amylase

145

the function of the enzyme amylase

breaks the bonds via hydrolysis reactions between the repeating glucose units, this allows sugar to be stored into the blood stream

146

what allows sugar to be stored into the bloodstream

the enzyme amylase breaks the bonds via hydrolysis reactions between the repeating glucose units

147

What happens once absorbed into the bloodstream

the human body distributes glucose to the areas where it is needed for energy or stores it as its own special polymer - glycogen

148

name another polymer of glucose

glycogen

149

The polysaccharide used by animals to store energy

Glycogen

150

Bonded to together to form glycogen molecules

Excess glucose

151

The animals stores in the liver and muscles tissues as an "instant" source of energy

Excess glucose is bonded together to form glycogen molecules

152

Both starch and glycogen are

Polymers of glucose

153

What structural differences do you observe between starch and sucrose

Starch has long chains

154

what monomer units do you observe in starch?

glucose

155

the most common test for a polysaccharide is

Lugol's test

156

In the Lugol's test what color is for the presence of starch

blue-black

157

dropping a very small drop of Lugol's on paper is what color and why

brown because lugol's is an indicator of polusaccaharide which paper is made out of

158

macromolecules with a diverse range of functions

proteins

159

proteins exist as

enzymes, antibodies, hormones, and transport proteins

160

Proteins are made up of

amino acids linked by peptide bonds

161

how many amino acids occur in nature

20

162

Proteins are also known as

polypeptides

163

H O
+ I II
H3N--C--C-O H3N----C----CO O ------> H3N

TRY TO REMEMBER THE 1ST IS AN AMINO ACID 1 THE SECOND IS AMINO ACID 2 AND THE THIRD IS A DIPEPTIDE

164

The biuret test is a positive indicator of the number of

peptide bonds in proteins

165

In the biuret test what is the color in the presence of proteins

pink to purple

166

why are proteins known as polypeptides

amino acids are linked by peptide bonds and there are many

167

what color does the bieuret solution turn in the presence of a great number of peptide bonds?

violet

168

comprised of DNA and RNA

nucleic acids

169

the genetic material of life

DNA and RNA

170

adds red coloration to lipids

Sudan IV

171

an indicator of the presence of monosaccharides

BENEDICT'S SOLUTION

172

an indicator of the presence of polysaccharides

lugol's test

173

an indicator for the presence of polypeptides

biuret test

174

common feature found in all cells

the plasma membrance