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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (69)
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1

Involved in DNA replication. The enzyme repairs small beaks in the phosphate-sugar backbone of DNA. it joints the Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the DNA.

DNA ligase

2

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme releases the tension in the parental DNA molecule caused by an unwinding at the replication fork

Topoismerase

3

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme make a small RNA molecule that is known as a primer. DNA polymerase cab begin synthesizing DNA by adding dNTPs on the 3' end of the primer

Primase

4

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme unwinds the two strands of DNA at replication fork.

Helicase

5

Involved in DNA replication. This protein binds to the DNA strands after the helicase unwinds it to prevent the unwind DNA strands from coming back together

Single-strand binding proteins.

6

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme adds dNTPs to the 3' end of a newly synthesized DNA chain. The dNTP added (either dATP, dTTP, dCTP, or dGTP) is the one that base-pairs with the nucleotide on the template strand. _____________ pauses ever time it adds a nucleotide to double-check if the correct nucleotide is added. If the wrong nucleotide is added, it can back-space and cut out the incorrect nucleotide.

DNA polymerase

7

Involved in DNA replication. This strand of DNA is synthesized in short segments. The 3' end of the newly synthesized DNA molecule faces away from the direction the replication for is opening up

lagging strand

8

Involved in DNA replication. These are the short strands of newly synthesized DNA on the lagging strand.

Okazaki fragments

9

Involved in DNA replication. This sequence of DNA nucleotides where DNA begins replication.

Origin of replication

10

Involved in transcription. This enzyme joins NTPs together to make RNA strand. The NTP added either (ATP, UTP, CTP, OR GTP) is the one that base-pairs with nucleotide on the DNA TEMPLATE strand.

RNA polymerase

11

Involved in transcription. This is a sequence of DNA nucleotides where transcription begins.

promoter

12

Made in transcription, used in translation. Contains a series of codons that correspond to a sequence of amino acids in the protein being made

mRNA

13

Made in transcription, used in translation. Is the RNA component of the ribosome.

rRNA

14

Made in transcription, used in translation. Acts as an adapter between mRNA and the protein sequence begin made. Each_______ has an anticodon at one end and a specific amino acid at the other end. The anticodon binds to the codon in mRNA and has the amino acid for which that codon codes at the other end.

tRNA

15

Involved in translation. A large complex of proteins and rRNA. Has two subunits, a large subunit an a small subunit. Is the molecule responsible for catalyzing the formation of the peptide bond between the an amino acid and a protein.

Ribosome

16

Involved in translation. The codon on the mRNA that signals to the ribosome to start translation

start codon

17

Involved in DNA replication. This strand of DNA is synthesized continuously. The 3' end of the newly-synthesized DNA molecule faces toward the direction the replication is opening up in

leading strand

18

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber, for Prophase I

Nuclear envelope breaks down. Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell. Spindle forms

19

State of DNA for Prophase I

Pairs of homologous chromosomes condense. (Each homologous chromosome is a pair of sister chromatids)

20

State other events for Prophase I

-Other events- crossing over occurs at chiasmata

21

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber of Metaphase I

-Spindle is fully formed and attached to all pairs of homologous chromosomes

22

State of DNA in Metaphase I

-pairs of homologous chromosomes line up on metaphase plate

23

what are the other events in Metaphase I

there are none

24

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber for Anaphase I

Spindle elongates

25

State of DNA in Anaphase I

-Pairs of homologous chromosomes separate
-pairs of sister chromatids move to opposite poles

26

What are the other events in Anaphase I

there are none

27

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber for Telophase I and Cytokinesis

spindle disassembles

28

State of DNA in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

DNA may or may not be condensed depending on organism type

29

State the other events in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

Clevage furrow forms and cells divide.
-Nuclear envelope may or may not reform depending on organism type

30

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber in Prophase II

-Nuclear envelopes breaks down (if reformed in Teophase I)
-Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell
-Spindle forms