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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (69)
1

Involved in DNA replication. The enzyme repairs small beaks in the phosphate-sugar backbone of DNA. it joints the Okazaki fragments on the lagging strand of the DNA.

DNA ligase

2

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme releases the tension in the parental DNA molecule caused by an unwinding at the replication fork

Topoismerase

3

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme make a small RNA molecule that is known as a primer. DNA polymerase cab begin synthesizing DNA by adding dNTPs on the 3' end of the primer

Primase

4

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme unwinds the two strands of DNA at replication fork.

Helicase

5

Involved in DNA replication. This protein binds to the DNA strands after the helicase unwinds it to prevent the unwind DNA strands from coming back together

Single-strand binding proteins.

6

Involved in DNA replication. This enzyme adds dNTPs to the 3' end of a newly synthesized DNA chain. The dNTP added (either dATP, dTTP, dCTP, or dGTP) is the one that base-pairs with the nucleotide on the template strand. _____________ pauses ever time it adds a nucleotide to double-check if the correct nucleotide is added. If the wrong nucleotide is added, it can back-space and cut out the incorrect nucleotide.

DNA polymerase

7

Involved in DNA replication. This strand of DNA is synthesized in short segments. The 3' end of the newly synthesized DNA molecule faces away from the direction the replication for is opening up

lagging strand

8

Involved in DNA replication. These are the short strands of newly synthesized DNA on the lagging strand.

Okazaki fragments

9

Involved in DNA replication. This sequence of DNA nucleotides where DNA begins replication.

Origin of replication

10

Involved in transcription. This enzyme joins NTPs together to make RNA strand. The NTP added either (ATP, UTP, CTP, OR GTP) is the one that base-pairs with nucleotide on the DNA TEMPLATE strand.

RNA polymerase

11

Involved in transcription. This is a sequence of DNA nucleotides where transcription begins.

promoter

12

Made in transcription, used in translation. Contains a series of codons that correspond to a sequence of amino acids in the protein being made

mRNA

13

Made in transcription, used in translation. Is the RNA component of the ribosome.

rRNA

14

Made in transcription, used in translation. Acts as an adapter between mRNA and the protein sequence begin made. Each_______ has an anticodon at one end and a specific amino acid at the other end. The anticodon binds to the codon in mRNA and has the amino acid for which that codon codes at the other end.

tRNA

15

Involved in translation. A large complex of proteins and rRNA. Has two subunits, a large subunit an a small subunit. Is the molecule responsible for catalyzing the formation of the peptide bond between the an amino acid and a protein.

Ribosome

16

Involved in translation. The codon on the mRNA that signals to the ribosome to start translation

start codon

17

Involved in DNA replication. This strand of DNA is synthesized continuously. The 3' end of the newly-synthesized DNA molecule faces toward the direction the replication is opening up in

leading strand

18

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber, for Prophase I

Nuclear envelope breaks down. Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell. Spindle forms

19

State of DNA for Prophase I

Pairs of homologous chromosomes condense. (Each homologous chromosome is a pair of sister chromatids)

20

State other events for Prophase I

-Other events- crossing over occurs at chiasmata

21

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber of Metaphase I

-Spindle is fully formed and attached to all pairs of homologous chromosomes

22

State of DNA in Metaphase I

-pairs of homologous chromosomes line up on metaphase plate

23

what are the other events in Metaphase I

there are none

24

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber for Anaphase I

Spindle elongates

25

State of DNA in Anaphase I

-Pairs of homologous chromosomes separate
-pairs of sister chromatids move to opposite poles

26

What are the other events in Anaphase I

there are none

27

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber for Telophase I and Cytokinesis

spindle disassembles

28

State of DNA in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

DNA may or may not be condensed depending on organism type

29

State the other events in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

Clevage furrow forms and cells divide.
-Nuclear envelope may or may not reform depending on organism type

30

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber in Prophase II

-Nuclear envelopes breaks down (if reformed in Teophase I)
-Centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell
-Spindle forms

31

State of DNA in Prophase II

Pairs of sister chromatids condense (if they condensed in Telophase I)

32

State of other events in Prophase II

there are none

33

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber in Metaphase II

Spindle is fully formed and attached to all pairs of sister chromatids

34

State of DNA in Metaphase II

Pairs of sister chromatids line up on the metaphase plate

35

State other events that occur in Metaphase II

there are none

36

State of Spindle Poles/Fibers in Anaphase II

Spindle elongates

37

State of DNA in Anaphase II

-Pairs of sister chromatids separate.
-Individual sister chromatids move to opposites poles

38

What are the other events that occur in Anaphase II

there are none

39

State of Spindle Poles/Fiber in Telophase II and Cytokinesis

Spindle disassembles

40

State of DNA in Telophase II and Cytokinesis

DNA de-condenses

41

What are the other events in Telophase II and Cytokinesis

-Cleavage furrow forms and cells divide
-Nuclear envelope reforms

42

Crossing over occurs at chiasmata

other event in Prophase I

43

Cleavage furrow forms and cells divide. Nuclear envelope may or may not reform depending on organism type

other event in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

44

DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing DNA chain, and cannot add nucleotides to the 5' end of a DNA chain. Both parental DNA chains are being relocated at each replication fork, but the 3' end of only one newly-synthesized DNA chain is facing the direction the fork is opening. This new DNA strand can be synthesized continuously and is termed the leading strand. The 3' end of the other strand newly-synthesized DNA chain faces the opposite direction and must be synthesized into small pieces this is the lagging strand.

Why leading strand can be synthesized while the lagging strand cannot be synthesized continuously

45

contains the information that is converted to a protein sequence in translation

Messenger RNA or mRNA

46

What is the function of Messenger RNA or mRNA

it contains information that is converted to a protein sequence in translation

47

acts as an adaptor between the mRNA and the amino acids of the protein being synthesized

Transfer RNA or tRNA

48

What is the function of Transfer RNA or tRNA

it acts as an adaptor between the mRNA and the amino acids of the protein being synthesized

49

Nuclear envelope breaks down, centrosomes migrate to the opposite ends of the cell. Spindle forms

Prophase I state of spindle poles/fiber

50

Spindle is fully formed and attached to all pairs of homologous chromosomes

Metaphase I state of spindle poles/fiber

51

spindle elongates

Anaphase I and II state of spindle poles/fiber

52

spindle disassembles

Telophase I & II and cytokinesis state of spindle poles/fiber

53

-nuclear envelopes breaks down if it reformed in Telophase I
-centrosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell
-spindle forms

Prophase II state of spindle poles/fiber

54

The spindle is fully formed and attached to all pairs of sister chromatids

Metaphase II state of spindle pole/fiber

55

The new nucleotides added to the growing DNA chain are selected based on base-pairing with old DNA strand being used as a template. Nucleotides that base-pair with the base in the template strand are added at each position of the newly-made DNA strand

How the nucleotide added to the growing DNA chain is selected.

56

The below single strand of DNA is used as template to make an RNA molecule. What is the sequence of the RNA molecule. (Assume transcription starts at the 3' end go the DNA molecule)? Make sure to label the 5' and 3' ends of the RNA molecule.
DNA: 3'- ATGGATACCGTTAAAGCTTTAGCATTAAACAGGCCCGGCCCTA-5'

RNA: 5'-UACCUAUGGCCAUUUCGAAAUCGUAAUUUGUCCGGGCCGGGCCGGAU-3'

57

A

U

58

T

A

59

G

C

60

U

A

61

Translate the RNA molecule from #3 into a protein sequence
RNA: 5' - UACCU AUG GCC AUU UCG AAA UCG UAA UUUGUCCGGGCCGGGAU-3'

AUG GCC AUU UCG AAA UCG UAA
MET- ALA- ILE - SER- LYS- CYS stop
start

62

-Pairs of homologous chromosomes condense
-each homologous chromosomes is a pair of sister chromatids

state of DNA in prophase I

63

Pairs of homologous chromosomes line up on the metaphase plate

state of DNA in metaphase I

64

-pair of homologous chromosomes separate
-pairs of sister chromatids move to the opposite poles

state of DNA in Anaphase I

65

DNA may or may not de-condense depending on organism type

state of DNA in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

66

Pairs of sister chromatids condense if they de-condense in Telophase I and Cytokinesis

state of DNA in prophase II

67

pairs of sister chromatids line up on the metaphase plate

state of DNA in metaphase II

68

-pairs of sister chromatids separate.
-Individuals sited chromatids move to opposite poles

state of DNA in anaphase II

69

DNA de-condenses

state of DNA in Telophase II and Cytokinesis