Unit 2.1 Cell structure and function Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2.1 Cell structure and function Deck (152)
1

basic unit of life

cell

2

smallest unit of a living thing

cell

3

made of one cell or many cells

living things/ organisms

4

less than one cell

not alive

5

one or ore cells

alive

6

living things

organisms

7

basic building block of all organisms

cells

8

The nucleus stores_______in a gel-like substance called

chromatic (DNA plus proteins), nucleoplasm

9

a condensed region of chromatin where ribosome synthesis occurs

the nucleolus

10

the boundary near the nucleus

nuclear envelope

11

the nucleus consist of

two phospholipid bilayer: an outer membrane and inner membrane

12

continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum

the nuclear membrane

13

allows substance to enter and exit the nucleus

nuclear pores

14

border - phospholipid bilayer

plasma membrane

15

fluid on the inside of the plasma membrane

cytoplasm

16

used to store genetic information

DNA

17

synthesize proteins

ribsomes

18

mobile/tome, smaller, no membrane-bound compartments

prokaryotic

19

mansion, larger, membrane-bound compartment, nucleus

eukaryotic

20

cells share these four components

plasma membrane, cytoplasm, DNA, and ribosomes

21

used by bacteria to attach to a host cell

fimbriae

22

used for locomotion

flagella

23

name the three domain system

bacteria, archaea, eukarya

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domain that prokaryotic is in

bacteria and archea

25

domain that eukaroytic is in

eukaryotic

26

lands. green algae, forams, ciliates, diatoms belong in what domain

eukarya

27

suffolobus, thermophilles,halophiles belong in what domain

archaea

28

green nonsulfur bacteria, mitochondrion, spirchetes, clamydia belong in what domain

bacteria

29

Name the number of cells, cell walls, gets energy by, some other thing about Kingdom Protisa

The Kingdom Protista has only one cell, may or may not have cell wall, some get energy from photosynthesis, some break sown organic molecules resp or fermentation and some do both, they have bad grouping based on relationship

30

In a Protistain cell you will find

flagella, nucleus, nucleolus, vacuole, chloroplast, cell wall

31

Name the number of cells, cell walls, gets energy by, some other thing about Kingdom Fungi

single celled such as yeast, multicellular such as molds and mushrooms, cell walls that are made of chitin, gets energy by breaking down organic molecules, and grows in filaments-hyphae and lots of hypae form a mycelium

32

Name the number of cells, cell walls, gets energy by, some other thing about Kingdom Plante

all are multi-cellular, all have cell walls made of cellulose, all get energy by photosynthesis from light

33

In a plant cell what would you find

they are about 5um and have a cell, cell wall, chloroplast, mitochondrion, nucleus, nucleolus

34

Name the number of cells, cell walls, gets energy by, some other thing about Kingdom Animalia

all are multi-cellular, have no cell walls, gets energy by breaking down organic molecules

35

eukaryotic cell structure in animals cells and plant cells

animal cells centrosomes and plant cells have cell walls, central vacuole, chloroplasts

36

name the cell components

nucleus, contents, border

37

chamber where cell stores its DNA

nucleus

38

DNA and packaging proteins and other stuff that involves DNA

contents of the cell

39

nuclear membrane, nuclear lamina, protein matrix

cells border

40

name the parts of the nuclear envelope

double membrane, nuclear pores, nuclear lamina

41

has two phospholipid bilayer

double membrane

42

large protein complexes, allows enter and leave the nucleus

nuclear pore

43

mesh of proteins on the inside of the envelope, gives the nucleus structire

nuclear lamina

44

Some evidence of mesh/network of proteins the nucleus

Nuclear matrix

45

Name the contents chromosome

DNA, number of DNA molecules, packaging, and histones

46

Spools for DNA

Histones

47

Each chromosome is one long piece of double-stranded

DNA

48

Each chromosome is

DNA

49

Genetic information is broke up in different chromosome

Number of DNA molecules

50

Diploid

Two copies of each chromosome ---- number of DNA molecules

51

23 pairs of chromosomes

Packaging

52

The structure has a dark spot and does not have a membrane

The structure of the nucleolus

53

It is the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis and ribosomes assemble

The function of the nucleolus

54

Where ribosomes are made

The nucleolus

55

Composition is made of RNA and Protein

Ribosomes

56

Linked with amino acids to make protein

The function of ribosome

57

What are the subunits of ribosome?

Eurkaryotic - 80s (60S and 40S)
Prokaryotic - 70s (50S and 30S)

58

Name the two types of ribosome?

Free and bound ribosomes

59

Floats in the cytoplasm and make proteins that float in cytoplasm

Free ribosomes

60

Attached to the nuclear envelope E.R. and make proteins that go somewhere, inserted into membrane, go to some other organelle.

Bound ribosome

61

What is the function of the endomembrane system?

Sorting of proteins into different compartments or outside (modification of proteins) of the cell (not cytoplasmic proteins)

62

What are the components of the endomembrane?

E.R. (Made some modification), Gogli (sorted pure modification) and other compartments outside the cell

63

Giant network of membrane -continuous with nuclear envelope

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) general structure

64

Does not have bound ribosomes

The smooth structure of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

65

Simple lipids made here, detoxification

The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

66

Has bound ribosomes

The structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

67

Where membrane proteins are made and no cytoplasmic proteins are made

The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

68

Sorting and modification center for proteins made in the rough E.R.

The function of the Golgi apparatus

69

Many membrane parts stacked on top of each other

The structure of Gogli apparatus

70

Name two parts of the Golgi apparatus

Cis-face and trans-face

71

Receiving face- receives proteins from the E.R

Cis-face

72

Shipping face -> to other parts of the cell

Trans-face

73

Small membrane-bound compartment

The destination of vesicles

74

Membrane-bound compartment filled with hydrolytic enzymes and with an acidic pH

The structure of lysosome

75

Digest or break down molecules

The function of lysosomes

76

Phagocytosis

Cell eating ( a function of the lysosome)

77

Autophagy

Recycling the function of lysosomes

78

Name the three types of vacuoles

Food vacuole, contractile vacuoles, central vacuole

79

Compartment containing something to be broke n down with lysosomes

Food vacuole

80

Used by freshwater organisms to "bail out" excess water flowing into the cell

Contractile vacuoles

81

Found in plant cells, filled with "cell sap", contains toxins in some types of plants

Central vacuole

82

2 membranes, the outer inter membrane space and the inner jocular mitochondrial matrix, has its own DNA and ribosomes (705)- similar

The structure of the mitochondria

83

Cellular respiration is the function of

The function of mitochondria

84

Has three membranes, outer membrane - I - inter membrane / inner membrane - I stroma (space) /thylakoids space

The structure of the chloroplast

85

The function of chloroplast

The site of photosynthesis

86

The cytoskeleton consist of

Microtubules, microfilaments, intermediate filaments

87

Thickest fibers made of protein called tubulin

Microtubules

88

The thinnest fibers made of a protein called actin

Microfilaments

89

There are several different types of these

Intermediate filaments

90

What are the roles of microtubules

Centrioles/centrosome, movement of vesicles, cilia and flagella, movement of chromosome

91

Always at a 90 degree angle from each other

Centrioles

92

Two centrioles

Centrosome

93

Made of microtubules and all microtubules around the centrosome

Centrioles and centrosome

94

Motor proteins walk along the microtubules and bring vesicles to specific planes

Movement of vesicles

95

Movement caused by microtubules sliding against each other

Cilia and flagella

96

Maintenance of cell shape, changes in cell shape, muscle contraction, cytoplasmic streaming, cell motility, and cell division

Main functions of the microfilaments

97

Two structures that intertwined stands actin

Microfilaments and actin filaments

98

What are the roles of microfilaments

Membrane shape, amoeboid movement, cytoplasmic streaming, muscle contraction, cytokinesis

99

Holds the membrane in specific shape

Membrane shale role of microfilaments

100

The cell flows toward a region where the microfilaments have depolarized

Amoeboid movement the role of the microfilaments

101

Name the three domains of life and briefly describe the characteristics of the organisms in that domain?

Eukarya: includes all eukaryotic cells (cells that have a nucleus and internal membrane bound compartments)
Archea: includes prokaryotic cells that lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls. Members of the domain Archea are more closely related to members of the domain Eukarya than they do members of domain bacteria
Bacteria: includes prokaryotic that have peptidoglycan in their cells

102

rigid cell covering made of cellulose that protects the cell, provides support, and gives shape to the cell

cell wall

103

large plant cell organelle that regulates the cell's storage compartment, hold water, and plays a significant role in cell growth as the sire of macromolecule degradation

central vacuole

104

region in animal cells made two centroles

centrosome

105

Material composed of polysaccharide chains cross - linked to usual peptides

Peptidoglycan

106

Name the six kingdoms of life

1) Kingdom Archeabacteria, 2) Kingdom Eubacteria, 3) Kingdom Protista, 4) Kingdom Fungi, 5) Kingdom Plantae, 6) Kingdom Animalia

107

For each of the six kingdoms name the domain that they are in

1). Kingdom Archaebacteria --Domain: Archaea
2). Kingdom eubacteria ---Domain: Eubacteria
3). Kingdom Protista -- Domain: Eukarya
4). Kingdom Fungi-- Domain: Eukarya
5). Kingdom Plantae -- Domain: Eukarya
6). Kingdom Animalia --Domain: Eukarya

108

For each of the six kingdoms, name the domain, briefly describe the kingdom and give an example of an organism included in kingdom

1). Kingdom Archaebacteria, domain archaea, includes all members of domain Archaea, an example is methanobacterium or haloquadratum
2). Kingdom Eubacteria, domain is eubacteria, includes all members of domain bacteria, for example streptococcus, escherichia coli, staphylococcus
3). Kingdom Protistia, domain Eukarya, includes single-celled eukaryotic cells that don't fit into this category, for example amoeba, paramecium, euglena
4). Kingdom Fungi, domain Eukarya, includes single-or multi-cellular eukaryotic cells that have cell walls made of chitin, for example yeasT, mold, mushrooms
5). Kingdom Plantae, domain Eukarya, these are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose and are capable of photosynthesis for example, trees, grass, flowering plants
6). Kingdom Animalia, domain Eukarya, these include eukaryotes that can't get their energy from photosynthesis, for example, sponges, worms, insects, vertebrates

109

Includes all members of domain Archaea

Kingdom Archaebacteria

110

Includes all members of domain bacteria

Kingdom eubacteria

111

Single-celled eukaryotic cells that don't fit in any other category

Kingdom Protistia

112

Single-or multicellular eukaryotic cells that have cells walls made of chitin

Kingdom Fungi

113

Multi-cellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose and are capable of photosynthesis

Kingdom Plantae

114

Multi-cellular that can't get their energy from photosynthesis

Kingdom Animalia

115

Briefly describe the characteristics that differentiate prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Eukaryotic cells: have internal membrane-compartments, have a nucleus, have 80S (large) ribosomes
Prokaryotic cells: have NO internal membrane-bound compartments, have no nucleus, 70S (small) ribosomes.

116

Briefly describe the structure and function of the plasma membrane

A bilayer of phospholipids that also contains proteins and carbohydrates. Serves to separate the inside of the cell from the outside of the cell.

117

A bilayer of phospholipids that also contains proteins and carbohydrates. Serves to separate the inside of the cell from the outside of the cell.

The structure and function of the plasma membrane

118

A thick layer of cellulose. Protects the cell

the structure and function of the Cell wall (of plants)

119

Briefly describe the structure and function of the plants cell wall

A thick layer of cellulose. Protects the cell

120

Briefly describe the structure and function of the nucleus

A compartment where the cell's DNA is stored.

121

A compartment where the cell's DNA is stored.

Nucleus

122

Briefly describe the function and structure of the nuclear envelope.

A double lipid membrane that separates the inside of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. There are large pore proteins that allow molecules to pass from the inside of the nucleus to the outside of the nucleus. The outer layer of the envelope is connected to the ER.

123

A double lipid membrane that separates the inside of the nucleus from the cytoplasm. There are large pore proteins that allow molecules to pass from the inside of the nucleus to the outside of the nucleus. The outer layer of the envelope is connected to the ER.

The structure and function of the nuclear envelope

124

Briefly describe the function and structure of chromatin

A structure that consists of molecules of DNA (chromosomes) which is wrapped around proteins (histones). Chromatin can have varying levels of compression.

125

A structure that consists of molecules of DNA (chromosomes) which is wrapped around proteins (histones). Chromatin can have varying levels of compression.

The structure and function of chromatin

126

Briefly describe the function and structure of the nucleolus

A region of the nucleus (not membrane bound) where ribosomal RNA is synthesized

127

A region of the nucleus (not membrane bound) where ribosomal RNA is synthesized

the structure and function of the nucleolus

128

Briefly describe the function and structure of ribosomes free and bound

ribosomes are complexes of protein and ribosomal RNA. They consist of a large and a small subunit, They are responsible for the synthesis of protein from amino acids. Free ribosomes are floating in the cytoplasm and synthesize cytoplasmic proteins. Bound ribosomes are bound to the rough ER and are responsible for synthesizing proteins that are embedded in membranes or are inserted into the lumen of the ER and are destined for transport to other organelles or out of the cell

129

ribosomes are complexes of protein and ribosomal RNA. They consist of a large and a small subunit, They are responsible for the synthesis of protein from amino acids. Free ribosomes are floating in the cytoplasm and synthesize cytoplasmic proteins. Bound ribosomes are bound to the rough ER and are responsible for synthesizing proteins that are embedded in membranes or are inserted into the lumen of the ER and are destined for transport to other organelles or out of the cell

the structure and function of ribosomes free and bound

130

Briefly describe the function and structure of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

The ER is a large membrane network that stretches throughout the cell. The interior of the ER is called the lumen, the exterior is the cytoplasm. The smooth ER lack bound ribosomes and is responsible for breaking down toxins and synthesizing lipids in some cells

131

The ER is a large membrane network that stretches throughout the cell. The interior of the ER is called the lumen, the exterior is the cytoplasm. The smooth ER lack bound ribosomes and is responsible for breaking down toxins and synthesizing lipids in some cells

The structure and function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

132

Briefly describe the structure and function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

The ER is a large membrane network that stretches throughout the cell. The interior of the ER is called the lumen, the exterior is the cytoplasm. The rough ER has bound ribosomes and is the site where the synthesis of proteins that are embedded in membranes or are inserted into the lumen of the ER and are destined for transport to other organelles or out of the cell occurs.

133

has bound ribosomes and is the site where the synthesis of proteins that are embedded in membranes or are inserted into the lumen

the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

134

are destined for transport to other organelles or out of the cell occurs.

the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

135

lack bound ribosomes and is responsible for breaking down toxins and synthesizing lipids in some cells

the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

136

Briefly describe the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus

a stack of membrane compartments. Has a cis-face and a trans-face. Acts as the shipping and receiving department of the cell. Vesicles are received in the cis-face, their contents sorted in the stacks, and new vesicles are sent out from the trans-face to other compartments, or out of, the cell

137

Has a cis-face and a trans-face

Golgi apparatus

138

Acts as the shipping and receiving department of the cell

Golgi apparatus

139

. Vesicles are received in the cis-face, their contents sorted in the stacks, and new vesicles are sent out from the trans-face to other compartments, or out of, the cell

Golgi apparatus

140

a stack of membrane compartments. Has a cis-face and a trans-face. Acts as the shipping and receiving department of the cell. Vesicles are received in the cis-face, their contents sorted in the stacks, and new vesicles are sent out from the trans-face to other compartments, or out of, the cell

the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus

141

Vacuoles that contain digestive enzymes and an acidic pH. Merge with food vacuoles to digest them or with other vacuoles to recycle cell components (autophagy).

lysosomes

142

Briefly describe lysosomes and their structure and function

Vacuoles that contain digestive enzymes and an acidic pH. Merge with food vacuoles to digest them or with other vacuoles to recycle cell components (autophagy)

143

Membrane bound compartments that have various uses in the cell. Plant cells have a large central vacuole that animal cells lack

vacuoles

144

sorting of proteins into different compartments or outside of the cell, not cytoplasmic proteins, modification of proteins

function of the endomembrane system

145

E.R. (made)/ some modifications
Golgi ( sorted)/ more modification
other compartments outside the cell

components of the endomembrane system

146

Holds the membrane in specific shapes

Membrane shapes

147

The cell flows toward a region where microfilaments have depolymerized

Amoeboid movement

148

Found in plants, circulation in the cytoplasm and organelle around central vacuole

Cytoplasmic streaming

149

Motor protein

Myosin

150

Myosin (motor protein) walking along actin (microfilaments) causes muscle contraction

Muscle contraction

151

In animal cells- ring of sliding microfilaments causes the cleavage furrow to contract

Cytokinesis

152

Composes nuclear lamina, gives nucleus structure

Lamina