Unit 1A - Cells, Scientific Method, Safety, Transport Flashcards Preview

Pre-AP Biology 101 > Unit 1A - Cells, Scientific Method, Safety, Transport > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 1A - Cells, Scientific Method, Safety, Transport Deck (30):
1

Homer notices that his shower is covered in strange green slime. His friend Barney tells him that coconut juice will get rid of the green slime. Homer decides to check this out by spraying half of the shower with coconut juice. He sprays the other half of the shower with water. After 3 days of the "treatement", tehre is no change in the appearance of the green slime on either side of the shower.

Identify the control gorup, independent variable, dependent variable, and what the conclusion should be.

Control Group - the side of the shower sprayed with water

 

Independent Variable - which liquid was used for cleaning

 

Dependent Variable - whether or not the green slime went away

 

Conclusion - coconut juice does not get rid of green slime

2

Bart believes that mice exposed to microwaves will become extra strong. He decides to perform this experiment by placing 10 mice in a microwave for 10 seconds. He compared these 10 mice to another 10 mice that had not been exposed. His test consisted of a heavy block of wood that blocked the mouse food. He found that 8 out of 10 of the microwaved mice were able to push the block away and 7 out of the 10 non-microwaved mice were able to do the same.

Identify the control group, independent variable, dependent variable, and what the conclusion should be.

Control Group - non-microwaved mice

Independent Variable - the microwaves

Dependent Variable - mouse strength

Conclusion - the microwaves did not increase the strength of the mice to any noticeable degree

3

How many variables do scientists test at a time?

Why?

Scientists test one variable at a time.

This allows them to isolate the variable and make sure that the effect observed in the experiment are the result of the one variable.

4

Scientists publish their results in order to

1. Verify their procedures

2. Receive feedback

3. Verify their data

5

Which is the smallest level of organization that includes living things?

Cells

6

Of the following levels of organization, which level includes all of the other levels?

Cells, Ecosystem, Community, Organ System, Population

Ecosystem

7

Name the 8 characteristics of living things

All living things:

1. Contain cells      2. Have DNA

3. Obtain and use energy

4. Reproduce     5. Respond to stimuli

6. Maintain homeostasis

7. Grow and develop 8. Evolve

8

What is homeostasis? (be able to name examples of how organisms maintain this)

Maintaining relatively stable internal conditions

9

Monosaccharides are monomers of

Carbohydrates

10

Through what type of reaction are polymers of carbohydrates formed?

Dehydration Synthesis

11

Nucleic Acids are made up of nucleotides, which include

A five-sided sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base

12

The biomolecule responsible for heredity including hair color, skin color, eye color, etc., is 

Nucleic Acids

13

The long term energy source of living things is

Lipids (fats)

14

Molecules that end in -ASE are

Proteins

15

How do enzymes speed up the rates of reactions?

By lowering the activation energy

(the energy required for the reaction to take place)

16

Bread, pasta, fruit, vegetables, and sugars are all examples of

Carbohydrates

17

Which of the four biomolecules can you not obtain through food?

Nucleic Acids

18

What is cell specialization?

Cells in a multicellular organism do different jobs

19

Which scientists contributed to cell theory?

Schleiden, Schwann, and Virchow

20

The three main components of cell theory are

1. All living things are made of cells

2. Cells are the basic unit of life

3. All cells come from existing cells

21

How do specimen observe under a compound light microscope differ from an electron microscope?

Light - living

Electron - dead/nonliving

22

Which organisms fall into the category of eukaryotes?

Protists, fungi, plants, and animals

23

All prokaryotes are 

Bacteria

24

Compare and contrast prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Prokaryotes: no nucleus, older, all bacteria, smaller, simple, no membrane-bound organelles, unicellular

 

Eukaryotes: have a nucleus, have membrane-bound organelles, larger organisms than bacteria, contains unicellular and multicellular organisms (protists, fungi, plants, animals)

25

Organelles found only in plants (not animals) include

Chloroplast - photosynthesis

Large Central Vacuole - turgor pressure

Cell Wall - ^^ and protection

26

List the parts of the cell membrane and their function

Phospholipid - makes up the bilayer

Proteins - transport, recognition, attachment

Cholesterol - stabilizes the membrane and gives it more fluidity

Carbohydrates - recognition, signalling 

27

Why does diffusion occur?

Because of Brownian Motion (random movement of particles)

28

Describe the three types of passive transport.

Diffusion - movement of substances from high concentration to low concentration across a semipermeable membrane

Osmosis - diffusion of water

Facilitated Diffusion - diffusion of large/polar molecules across a semipermeable membrane with the use of transmembrane proteins

29

How do passive and active transport differ? 

Passive transport does not require energy because it's movement of particles with/down the concentration gradient (from high to low concentration)

 

Active transport does require energy because it's movement of particles against the concentration gradient (from low concentration to high concentration)

30

Lipids are composed of

A glycerol backbone and fatty acid chains (long chains of carbon and hydrogen)