Unit 2 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 2 Test Deck (58):
1

Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of power to the national government, leaving the rest for sovereign states

Each level of government is dominant within its own sphere

Dual federalism

2

Stresses federalism as a system of intergovernmental relationships in delivering governmental goods and services to the people

Calls for cooperation among various levels of government

Cooperative federalism

3

Conceives federalism as a mixed set of responsibilities in which all levels of government are engaged in a variety of issues and programs

Contrasts with dual federalism, which has fixed divisions between levels of government

Marble cake federalism

4

Views national, state, and local governments as competing with each other over ways to put together packages of services and taxes

Competitive federalism

5

Imply that states’ share of powers rests on the permission and permissiveness of the national government

Permissive federalism

6

Championed by Nixon and Regan

Presumes power of the federal government is limited in favor of the broad powers reserved to the states

New federalism

7

Gibbon vs. Ogden

Involved NY steamboat licenses

Held that states may not discriminate against interstate transportation and out of state commerce

Affirmed broad authority of Congress over interstate commerce

Promoted a national economic common market

8

Federal mandate

A requirement that the federal government imposes as a condition for receiving federal funds

9

Concurrent powers

Powers that the Constitution gives to both the national and state governments

10

Printz vs. US

States not required to conduct instant national background checks prior to selling a handgun

National government cannot draft local police to do its bidding

11

Interstate compacts

Agreement among states

Congress must approve such agreements

Often establish interstate agencies to handle problems

12

McCulloch vs. MD

MD levied a tax against national bank

John Marshall said not state can use its taking powers to tax a national instrument

Outlined national supremacy

13

Preemption

Occurs when a national law takes precedence over a state law

State and local laws are preempted when they conflict with national laws (laws regulating water, clean air, civil rights)

14

What has the Supreme Court recently signaled about the role of national courts in federalism issues?

The national courts should be more active in resolving federalism issues

15

Constitutional Counterrevoltion

Return to older version of federalism from the 1930s

16

US vs. Morrison

Struck down the Violence Against Women Act because gender motivated crimes did not have a substantial impact on interstate commerce

Congress therefore exceeded its powers by intruding on the powers of the states

17

Categorical formula grants

Grants for specific purposes

Distributed to states based on population

Require state governments to provide some of total funding

Tightly monitored to ensure that money is spent exactly as directed

Medicaid

18

Project grants

For specific activities such as research, construction, training

Time restrictions

Tight guidelines

Universities

19

Block grants

Broad grants to state for specific activities (education, child care)

Few requirements

20

The widely shared beliefs, values, and norms citizens hold about their relationship to the government and each other

Political culture

21

Deliberation

The idea of people coming together, listening to each other, exchanging ideas, learning to appreciate each other's differences

22

Social capital

Democratic and civic habits of discussion, compromise, and respect for differences, which grow out of voluntary organizations

23

Most revered value

Liberty

24

Natural rights

The rights of all people to dignity and worth

25

Democratic consensus

A set of widely shared attitudes and beliefs about government

26

Popular sovereignty

The idea that power resides in the people

27

Rule of law

Government is based on a body of law applied equally and by just procedures

28

Prospectively

Laws focus on here and now

29

Competitive economy

Individuals reap large reward for their initiative and hard work

30

A consisten patter of ideas or beliefs about political values and the role of government

Political ideology

31

New Right

Religiously (social) conservatives

32

Political socialization

Process by which parents and others teach children about political values, beliefs, and attitudes

33

Reinforcing cleavages

Division within society that reinforce sac other, making groups more homogeneous

34

Cross cutting cleavages

Divisions within society that cut across demographic categories to produce groups that are more heterogeneous

35

Most urban state

CA

36

Most rural state

VT

37

Federalist 51

Religious freedom

38

Federalist 10

To most common source of factions has been various unequal distribution of property

39

Conceptual framework

Set of concepts that are clearly defined and well understood

40

What framework does the book use?

Structural functional system framework

41

Political system

Set of institutions and agencies concerned with formulated and implementing the collective goals of society

42

Structures

Specialized agencies such as parliaments, bureaucracies, administrative agencies, and courts (similar structures have different roles in different nations)

43

Process functions

Functions necessary in the political process

44

Adjudication

When policy is challenged, it is judged

45

System function

Functions that determine whether or not the system will be maintained

46

Policy functions

Output policies

47

Structural functional policy configuration governments take on at different times

Political regimes

48

Structural functional approach focuses on

What, not why

49

Way to understand how different political processes interact

Comparative statics

50

Analysis of political development and change

Political dynamics

51

Functional analysis tells us

How institutions interact to produce and implement policies

52

Outputs of political system are its

Performance

53

Three levels of political culture

Political system, process, and policy

54

Form when a country is deeply divided in political attitudes

Political subcultures

55

Express powers

The powers specifically granted to Congress in Article 1 Section 8 of the Constitution

56

Centralists believe the power of the national government consists of

Whatever needs to be done to promote the general welfare

57

According to the text, Supreme Court Justice William H. Rehnquist is most remember for

His defense of states' rights

58

A federal grant that give a state the right to spend money within a broad category is called a

Block grant