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Flashcards in Unit 3- Deck (79):
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Sensation

Stimulation of sense organs

1

Perception

Selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory input

2

Threshold

dividing point between energy levels that do and do not have a detectable effect

3

Absolute threshold

a specific type of sensory input is the minimum stimulus intensity that an orgasm can detect

4

Dr. p

Visual a Agnosia: inability to recognize objects through sight

5

Psychophysics

How physical stimuli are translated into psychological experience

6

Just noticeable difference

Minimum stimulus intensity a sense can detect 50% of the time

7

Signal detection theory

Proposed that the detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity

8

Webers/fechners law

The "jnd" of the stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the stimuli

9

Detect ability

Replaced threshold (hit, miss, false alarm, correct rejection)

10

Subliminal perception

Registration of sensory input without conscious awareness

11

Who made the popcorn add

James vicary

12

Sexual ads

Wilson Brian key

13

Sensory adaptation

Decline of sensitivity due to prolonged stimulation

14

2 purposes of the eye

House retina
Channel light toward retina

15

Where does light enter

Cornea

16

What is considered the window of the eye

Cornea

17

What is the lens

Transparent eye structure that focuses light rays falling on the retina

18

What is the retina

Neural tissue lining inside of the back surface of the eye

19

Optic disk

A hole in the retina where the i tic nerve fibers exist in the eye

20

Cones

Daylight and color

21

Fovea

Tiny spot in center of retina with the most cones

22

Rods

Night vision and peripheral vision

23

Dark adaptation

The process in which the eyes become more sensitive to light in low illumination
Light to dark

24

Passage of light

Retina
Rods/cones
Ganglion cell
Bipolar cell
Optic nerve

25

Light adaptation

The eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination
Dark to light

26

Receptive field of a visual cell

Retinal area that, when stimulated, affects the firing of that cell

27

Lateral antagonism

When neural activity in a cell opposes activity in surrounding cells

28

Reversible figure

Drawing that can shift between 2 interp

29

Inattentional blindness

Failure to see event or object BC attention is focused elsewhere

30

Trichomatic theory of color vision

The human eye has three receptors with differing sensitivities to different light wave lengths

31

Opponent process of theory

Color perception depends on receptors that make antagonistic responses to three pairs of colors

32

Phi phenomenon

Illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession

33

Gestalt psychology

The whole can be greater than the sum of its parts

34

Feature analysis

Detecting specific elements in visual input and making it a more complex form

35

Amplitude

Loudness

36

Frequency

Pitch

37

Purity

Timbre

38

Wavelengths

Hz

39

Decibels

Measure amplitude

40

Timbre

Difference in percieved sound

41

Pinna

Sound collecting cone

42

Eardrum

Tense membranes that vibrates in response to sound waves funneled by the piña to the audits

43

Ossicles

Hammer anvil and syrup

44

Where do the ossicles translate vibrations

To the eardrum

45

Cochlea

Fluid filled, Coles tunnel with receptors

46

Oval window

Where sound enters the cochlea, due to vibrations of the ossicles

47

Basilar membrane

Division of the cochlea into upper and lower chambers

48

Hair cells

Auditory receptors in the BM

49

Vestibular system is where and what does it involve

Inner ear and equilibrium

50

Place theory

Perception of pitch corresponds to the vibration of different portions or places along the BM.

51

Frequency theory

Perception of pitch corresponds to the rate at which the whole BM operates

52

Gustatory

Taste

53

Olfactory

Smell

54

How many tastes are there,

4
Bitter
Salty
Sweet
Sour

55

Taste receptors

Cluster of taste buds

56

How long do taste buds live?

10 days

57

Non tasters

1/4 taste buds
25%

58

Medium tasters

Between extremes
50%

59

Super tasters

Special taste receptors
25%

60

Perception of flavor

Combination of taste smell and sensation of food

61

Olfactory cilia

Small receptors

62

How long do olfactory cilia live

30/60 days

63

Olfactory bulb

Location where cilia and axons synapses then route to the olfactory cortex

64

What's different about the olfactory system

Doesn't pass through thalamus

65

touch

Somatosensory

66

Tactile stimulation

Feeling pressure

67

2 pathways

Fast path
Slow path

68

Fast path

A delta
Immediate Pain

69

Slow path

C delta
Stinging second pain

70

Gate control theory

Incoming pain must pass through gate in the spinal cord, that can be closed

71

Endorphins

Body's natural painkiller

72

Perisqueductal gray

descending neural pathway that mediates suppression of pain

73

Perceptual constancy

Tendency to experience a stable perception in the face of continually changing sensory input

74

Visual allusion

An apparently inexplicable discrepancy between the appearance of the visual stimulus and its physical reality

75

Impossible figures

Objects that can be represented in 2d pictures but not 3d

76

Perceptual hypothesis

An inference about which distal stimuli could be responsible for the proximal stimuli sensed

77

Depth perception

Interpretation of visual cues that indicate how near or far away objects are

78

Binocular cues

Clues about distance based on the differing views of the two eyes