Unit 9- Human Development Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 9- Human Development Deck (47):
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Zygote

One cells organism formed by the Union of a sperm and an egg

1

Prenatal period

Extends from conception to birth, usually encompassing nine months of pregnancy

2

First two weeks of the prenatal development

Germinal stage

3

The middle stage of prenatal development

Embryonic stage

4

The two months before birth

Fetal stage

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In which stage does the placenta begin to form?

Germinal

6

Placenta

A structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wasted to pass out to the mother

7

What happens in the germinal stage

Rapid cell division
Cell mass implants on the uterine wall

8

In which stage do vital organs and bodily systems begin to form

Embryonic

9

In which stage do most miscarriages occur

Embryonic

10

In which stage do muscles and bones begin to form?

Fetal

11

Why is fat presented in the fetal stage?

To provide insulation

12

In which stage do the respiratory and digestive systems mature

Fetal

13

The age at which I baby can survive in the event of a premature birth

Age of viability

14

What weeks are the age of viability

22 to 26

15

What disorders has been linked to prenatal malnutrition

Schizophrenia and other psych disorders

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What is associated with heart disease, diabetes, and obesity in adulthood

Low birth weight

17

A collection of congenital problems associated with excessive alcohol during pregnancy

Fetal alcohol syndrome

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When a baby is born with a small head

Microcephaly

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Typical FAS problems

Small head, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and delayed ménage and motor development

20

Most common cause of mental retardation

Fetal alcohol syndrome

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Which experiment provides the best evidence for FAS

Ann strissguth in Seattle

22

Illnesses that are fatal to a fetus

Measles
Rubella
Syphilis
Chicken pox

23

Percent of women with HIV that passed it to their child

20-30

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What reduced the passage of HIV

Antiretroviral drugs

25

Refers to the progression of muscular coordination required for physical activities

Motor development

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The head to foot direction of motor development

Cephalocaudal trend

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The center outward direction of motor development

Proximo distal trend

28

Who discovered that lengthy periods of no growth were punctuated by sudden bursts of growth

Lampl veldhuis Johnson

29

Development that reflects the gradual unfolding of ones genetic blueprint

Maturation

30

Indicate the typical age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities

Developmental Norms

31

Refers to characteristic mood? Activity level, and emotional reactivity

Temperament

32

When investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a period of time

Longitudinal design

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When investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time

Cross sectional

34

Occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups growing up in different time periods

Cohert effects

35

Who discovered that there were three basic styles of temperament

Thomas and chess

36

Direct observation temperament study

Jerome kagan

37

At what age to children become noticeably attached to their mothers

6-8 months

38

Emotional distress seen in many infants when they are separated from people with whole they have formed and attachment

Separation anxiety

39

Emotional attachment study with monkeys

Harry Harlow

40

Believed there were biological basis for attach many

John bowlby

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Attachment: secure base, comfortable when mother is present, upset when she leaves, and is calmed when returned

Secure attachment

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Anxious when mothers are near and protest when she leaves but not comforted when she returns

Anxious ambivalent attachment

43

Not distressed when mother leaves and seek little contact

Avoidant attachment

44

Children appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid mothers and are especially insecure

Disorganized disoriented attachment

45

Discovered the different levels of attachment

Mary Saltar ainsworth

46

When does separation anxiety peak in children

14-18 months