Unit 3 Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 3 Immunology Deck (41)
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-HIV elite controllers may have strong ADCC response
-in ADCC, Fcgamma receptor on NK cells binds Fc region of IgG antibody that is bound to target cell, NK cell then induces apoptosis
-is not related to MHC the way CTL is


NK Cells

-cell of innate immune system
-can attack cells and directly induce apoptosis
-ADCC also
-is not MHC related the way CTL is


Flow Cytometry

-test for T cell number and function
-shows graph of CD4+ vs C8+ cells
-lasers used to illuminated cells in single file line and quantify them


Test for B Cell Function

-serum protein electrophoresis
-serum run on gel and stained for protein
-results show graph with peaks with normal gammaglobulin showing soft peak on right side
-big, wide peak is polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia
-big, narrow peak is monoclonal hypergammaglobulinema (multiple myeloma)
-no peak is agammaglobulinemia


Test to measure individual immunoglobulin classes or subclasses

-single radial immunodiffusion
-results appear in circles that can be measured


Test for T Cell Function

-skin test
-chest x ray in infants might be helpful to check for thymus (looks like heart)


Tests for Autoimmune Diseases

-antinuclear antibodies
-rheumatoid factor
-immune complexes


Tests for Specific Antibody

-simple ELISA (indirect only)
-passive agglutination


Tests for Measuring Antigens

-direct ELISA
-capture ELISA
-rapid screens
-reverse passive agglutination


Monoclonal Antibodies

-B cell mixed combined with myeloma cell that produce antibodies to certain inflammatory elements
-murine (mouse) -omab
-chimeric (mouse VL and VH domains only) -ximab
-humanized (mouse CDR only) -zumab
-human (made in SCID mouse with human organs) -umab


Biological Response Modifiers (BRMs)

-some are growth factors that can be used in bone marrow transplant to increase new bone marrow growth


Bispecific T Cell Engager (BiTE)

-antibodies (CD19 and CD3) that are coupled together via engineering to bring CTL cell together with B lymphoma cell


Chimerica Antigen Receptor (CAR)

-antibody to CDR of target cell that is attached to antibody for CD3 CTL cell surface molecule
-no MHC restriction


Passive Antibody Therapy in Cancer

-attach antibody to cancer cell to toxin or T cell
-this allows specific targeting of cancer cells for treatment


ABO (and bombay) Blood Types

-bombay- lacks transferase to add final sugar to core, so these people do not express their blood types and appear O
-bombay can only receive blood from bombay



-IgM antibody to other blood types
-exposed to antigens in environment and do not need to be exposed to other blood types to have reaction


crossmatch test

-done before blood transfusion to test for antibody in recipient to antigens in donor blood
-donor cells are suspended in saline and plasma of recipient is added
-mixture is centrifuged and supernatant is checked for redness (hemolysis)
-pellet is then resuspended and checked for clumps
-if either test is positive, blood is not used


Coomb's Test (indirect vs direct)

-antiglobulin test (tests for presence of antibody)
-ex. autoimmune hemolytic anemia
-direct- is there antibody present on cells that I am interested in? Add antiglobulin to pt's cells.

-indirect- is there unexpected antibody to donor RBCs in plasma of recipient? Add antiglobulin to mixture of donor's cells and recipient's plasma.


heterphile antibody

-antibody to disease also happens to bind to another antibody
-cross reactive antibodies
-can test for mono or syphilis


Hemolytic Disease of Newborn

-severe disease causes high bilirubin that can cross blood brain barrier and lead to brain disease or death
-sensitization occurs in mother during pregnancy where fetus is Rh+ and mother is Rh-
-mother then makes IgG than can cross placenta in future pregnancies
-RhoGAM is IgG to Rh(D) and opsonizes Rh(D) in mother's blood stream and destroys them before mother can develop response


ABO hemolytic disease of newborn

- when mother makes IgG instead of IgM to ABO antigens
-this can cross placenta and cause disease
-no treatment available


passive aggluination

-serial dilutions of serum (antibodies) mixed with antigen
-can measure titer amount
-uses beads to normalize antigen size



-affects Th CD4 cells
-must be below 200 to have AIDS
-HIV type 1 is more prevalent than type 2
-lentivirus- slow progression that leads to death
-virus from chimps (M), and gorillas (O) and brought to US likely from sex travel in Haiti
-35 million people in world have HIV
-In US, 1,100,000 have HIV, 16% don't know they have it
-incidence dec. 33% since 2001
-virus gp120 binds to CD4 on T cells, causing conformational change in gp120 that puts it in contact with CCR5 (on T cell)
-second conformational change so that gp41 is exposed on HIV that pokes through T cell membrane and virus enters cells
-cells infected with HIV can lyse quickly, become chronic, or become latent
-chronic viral producers have gp120/gp41 on surface and can fuse with other non infected cells, rendering antibodies useless
-latency is in Tfh cells in lymph node that can suppress DNA replication but cannot get rid of DNA from nucleus
-pts eventually stop making more T cells
dx: with ELISA and confirm with western blot


Infections Seen in HIV Patients

-Candida albicans
-Pneumocystis jirovecii
-Protozoan infections
-kaposies sarcoma
-T cell mediated diseases


HIV long term survivor

-mutation in CCR5 (homozygous delta 32) on Th (CD4) cells
-mutation means no CCR5 receptor is present for HIV to bind to to enter cells


HIV elite controller

-associated with HLAB57
-esp. good at presenting HIV on MHCs
-infected with HIV but do not progress to AIDS
-ADCC or CTL response is strong


Good Target for HIV Vaccine

-target gp120 or gp41 because these portions cannot mutate to maintain function of viruses


Immune Surveillance Theory

-T cells and other immune cells may suppress cancer cells
-confirmed by research- immunosuppressed pts have more cancer



-appear to not have tumor, but really have latent tumor cells
-elimination- immune system attacks cancer or cancer cells die due to overproliferation
-equilibrium- immune system kills most cancer cells but not all, some survive for many years
-escape- cancer cells mutate to resist immune system (CTLA-4 and PD1 checkpoint receptors on CTLs are engaged by cancer cells)
-autoantibodies can be made to block these receptors and prevent activation by tumor cells (PD1= nivolumab, CTLA4= ipilimumab)


Tumor Associated Antigens (TAA)

-could be normal but overexpressed
-could be mutated
-tumor rejection antigens are subclass