Flashcards in US History - Civil War - Assignments Deck (67)
Permitted any citizen or prospective citizen to purchase 160 acres of public land for a small fee after living on it for five years 
Transferred substantial public acreage to the state governments, which could now sell the land and use the proceeds to finance public education 
New currency backed not by gold or silver but by the good faith and credit of the government
New York City Draft Riots
A group of demonstrators opposed to a new law for recruiting new soldiers, who rioted in NYC for four days lynched several Blacks, burned down black homes, businesses and an orphanage, over 100 dead; a group of federal troops direct from the Battle of Gettysburg stopped them
Opposing the war, also known as Peace Democrats, Lincoln's greatest problem. He ordered military arrests of civilian dissenters
Signed by Lincoln on January 1, 1863; declared all slaves inside Confederation as forever free. Did not apply to Union slave states nor to Confederate states under Union control (TE, West VA, South LO). Feared that Border States would revolt.
Stated: War was fought to preserve Union AND eliminate slavery
1865: abolished slavery in all parts of US
Since antislavery impulse gained strength in areas not affected by Emancipation Proclamation
1861: All slaves used for insurrectionary purposes were considered freed
April 1862: All white males between 18-35 had to be in military service for three years
Union commander, shared Lincoln's belief in unremitting combat and in making enemy armies and resources, not enemy territory, target of military efforts
Robert E. Lee
Southern president's principal military adviser. After a few months he left Richmond to command forces in field
Union had overwhelming advantage in naval power
-> enforcing blockade of Southern coast and assisting Union armies in field operations.
Blockade began in first weeks of war, kept most oceangoing ships out of Confederate ports. Soon federal forces seized the port themselves. Last important Confederate port fell to Union in early 1865.
Difference Confederate and Union Constitution
President could veto budget to part of of the item
How did Confederation finance the war
They printed money, causing an inflation
Union Secretary of State, very dynamic and made good decisions
Confederacy - relationship with Europe
Hoped support from both France and Europe since it exported a lot of cotton to them. But France didn't want to help unless England did. England was reluctant, because of an anti-slavery movement that supported the Union. Also, England and France were not dependent on cotton of Confederacy.
Union - relationship with Europe
Union government was angry when Great Britain, France and other nations declared the selves neutral early in the war, implying that the two sides to the conflict had equal share. Washington insisted that conflict was simply domestic insurrection, not war between two legitimate governments.
Late 1861: confederate diplomats sneaked into Cuba and took British diplomats from steamer, Trent, as captives. Lincoln and Seward released them
New inventions both helped fight the war but also made more deadly and dangerous at the same time. Some inventions were: rifle, hot air balloon, railroads, telegraph
July 21, 1861: fought in northern Virginia, Union General: McDowell
Confederacy and Union met at stream, Bull Run, in Manassas, Union made attacks, but Confederacy won because of savage counterattack. Battle was blow to Union morale and confidence
New Orleans Seized
April 25, 1862: Union tried to seize control of southern part of Mississippi River from north and south, moving down the river from Kentucky and up Gulf of Mexico to New Orleans. In April a Union squadron smashed past weak Confederate forts near mouth of the Mississippi and from there sailed up to New Orleans. City did not expect an attack from South and was defenseless. Therefore surrendered, which was important turning point in war. Mouth of Mississippi was closed to Confederate trade and South's largest city and most important banking center was in Union hands.
Forts in Tennessee
Early 1862: Confederate troops were stretched out in long defensive line around Fort Henry and Fort Donelson. Grant attacked Fort Henry first who surrendered without any resistance. Than attacked Fort Donelson who surrendered February 16.
April 6-7: Grant advanced with 40,000 men south along Tennessee River. At Shiloh, TE, met force almost equal to his own, commanded by Johnston and Beauregard. The result was a battle. It was a narrow victory for the Union.
Battle of Murfreesboro
December 31 - January 2: Braxton Bragg was in command of Union army in West, gathered his forces at Chattanooga, east TE, where he faced Union army trying to capture city. Only met several months later. Bragg was forced to withdraw to the South in defeat.
Winter 1861-62: McClellan, commander of Army of Potomac, designed campaign to capture Richmond. Chose complicated route to avoid enemy troops. Navy would carry down his troops the Potomac to a peninsula eats of Richmond. Army would then approach city.
Battles outside Richmond
May 31 - June 1: McClellan was battling Confederate troops under Johnston. Johnston, badly wounded, was replaced by Robert E. Lee.
Battle of the Seven Days
June 25 - July 1: Lee launched new offensive in an effort to cut McClellan off from his base on York River. McClellan fought his way across peninsula and set up new base on James. Now he was only 25 miles from Richmond and in good position to renew campaign; however, he did not advance. Hoping to force new offensive against Richmond along direct overland route he had always preferred, Lincoln ordered army to move back to northern VA.
War fought in Maryland. A Union victory. Important, because Great Britain announced that they would not help the Confederacy since they had lost.
Spring of 1863: Grant was driving at Vicksburg on MI River. Vicksburg was well protected. Grant attacked Vicksburg from rear. After sicks weeks Vicksburg surrendered because they were starving from Siege.
With another victory on river, they cut Confederacy in two.
Turning point of war.