Flashcards in US History - Progressivism - Assignments Deck (80):
Group of journalists that drew attention to social, economic and political injustice. Exposed scandal and corruption. First targets were trusts and railroads.
Peak of influence in first decade of 19th century: investigated governments, labor unions, corporations.
Part of Muckrakers. Produced study of Standard Oil trust.
Created Hull House
Settlement house in Chicago. Response to problems of crowded immigrant neighborhoods in cities. Became model for other institutions. Helped immigrant families to adapt to language and customs of US.
-> efforts of educated women
-> launched the profession of social work, especially for women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Promoter of Woman Suffrage, thought women should have the same rights as men
Susan B Anthony
Carrie Chapman Catt
Journalist from Iowa, cofounded (?) Woman Suffrage Association, under her leadership grew enormously
Head of militant National Woman's party, argued 19th Amendment would not be enough to protect womens' rights, needed amendment that would provide clear legal protection for their rights and would prohibit discrimination based on sex, her argument found limited favor
What were the arguments for and against women's suffrage?
For: equal rights, would allow women to bring virtues more widely to bear on society's problems, would be important contribution to politics because the largest group of temperance movement would have political voice, war would become past bc women would end men's warlike behavior
Against: radical, old picture of women as wives and mothers, suffrage was associated with divorce, promiscuity, neglect of children
What factors were contributing to the "new," more assertive woman?
Insulation from political and professional life enhanced their ability to wield influence, women were having fewer children, had more time for themselves, many single women, higher level of education, formed clubs to help lower class
What factors finally contributed to the ratification of the 19th Amendment?
1920: Guaranteed political rights to women
mean same thing, petition process, in ballot get proposition that says they want or do not want something to happen and it becomes law, get around legislature
Robert M. LaFollette
Most celebrated state-level reformer, elected governor in 1900, turned his state Wisconsin into something called 'laboratory of progressivism'. Wisconsin progressives won approval of primaries, initiatives and referendums and other progressive stuff
Lobby and interest groups
Professional organizations, trade associations representing particular businesses and industries, labor organizations, farm lobbies and more. Some clubs as women's club needed to operate as interest clubs to advance demands.
New pattern of politics, in which individual interests organized to influence government
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Fire in factory of Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NY, many workers died, because trapped inside since emergency exists were locked by management
After, state commission studied cause for fire and condition of workplace. Issued reports that called for major reforms, that reached legislatures in Tammany Hall who created strict regulations on factory owners.
Challenged Washington who said blacks should concentrate later on political equality and first on self-improvement with his own book, accused him on limiting aspirations, said blacks should strive for full university education and fight for civil rights
Launched Niagara Movement and then cofounded NAACP. Fought for equal rights, lawsuits in federal courts were the weapons
Prohibition of alcohol
What were the primary aims and accomplishments of the progressives at the state and local levels?
Less control of legislatures, machines, bosses, parties
Child labor, worker's conditions, women work,
Why could the temperance movement be considered progressive? Why not?
It tried to help working class and fight against saloons/ boss machines
Direct primary and Recall
elect somebody and regret, sign petitions to have new election to replace that person the
US leading preservationist, founder of Sierra Club, added to National Park System (protect public land from exploitation or development)
Spent a lot of his time with controversy over Hetch Hetchy Valley (many wanted a reservoir fro dam, but naturalists wanted to protect it), Construction of dam won
Pure Food and Drug Act
Restricted sale of of dangerous or ineffective medicines
Meat Inspection Act
Response to book The Jungle; Helped eliminate many diseases transmitted in impure meat
What did Roosevelt feel was the U.S. government's role in business, particularly regarding monopolies and big business?
Mediator of public good, investigate businesses and publicize results
What laws did he propose to Congress that would help do this? (Government's role in business)
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (established ICC) was effort to regulate industry but later its influence was limited
Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906 sought to restore some authority to government by giving ICC authority to inspect books of railroad companies
Pure Food and Drug Act
Meat inspection Act
Eight-hour day for workers,
broader compensation for victims of industrial accidents,
inheritance and income taxes
Regulation of stock market
How did Roosevelt respond to the coal strike in 1902?
Asked operators and mines to accept impartial federal judgement, threatened to seize mines when owners refused
How was that different from his predecessors?
Used military to seize mines, used it in favor for miners, not operators
What was Roosevelt's position on the natural environment?
Conservation of environment
Protection of natural beauty of land and health of wildlife from humans
What did he do to accomplish this? (Conservation of environment)
Adding public land to national forest system
Establish government's role as manager of development of wilderness
Public reclamation and irrigation projects
National Reclamation Act: provided federal funds for construction of dams, reservoirs, canals in West
What were some of the qualities or personal style characteristics that Roosevelt made us of in his Presidency?
Prohibited shipment across state lines of goods produced by underage children, giving importance to constitutional clause assigning Congress the task of regulating interstate commerce
Federal Reserve System
Federal Reserve Act: created twelve regional banks, each to be owned by banks in district, Federal Reserve banks would hold certain percentage of assets of member banks in reserve, would use reserves to support loans to private banks at interest rate, would issue new paper currency, would be able to shift funds quickly to troubled areas
What were Taft's accomplishments? His shortcomings?
Bad: Didn't change tariffs at all, Pinchot Ballinger Controversy (over forests)
Do you think that he (Taft) was helped or hindered by following Roosevelt? Why?
I guess not? Because too high expectations, didn't form his own opinion
How did Roosevelt's New Nationalism differ from Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom?
New Nationalism: social justice for minorities only possible through strong government, much intervention and regulation: graduated income, inheritance tax, workers compensation for industrial accident, regulation of women and child labor, tariff revision, regulation of corporations
New Freedom/ difference: approach to economic policy and trusts: wanted not to regulate, but destroy monopolies
How did the inexperienced Wilson manage to defeat both Taft and Roosevelt, both of whom had Presidential experience?
Wilson had Democrats' interest and Roosevelt and Taft shared Republicans
What does Roosevelt's defeat in 1912 tell you about American politics?
It is not loyal to one person, but more spontaneous, constantly changing, and people are interested in someone who at that time represents their interests
What were 4 of Wilson's progressive accomplishments?
1. Federal Reserve Act
(2. 17th Amendment)
3. 18th Amendment
4. 19th Amendment
5. League of Nations
Great White fleet
New American navy, TR sent 16 ships on unprecedented journey around world including Japan to make sure Japan recognized A as big naval power
US had right to not only oppose European intervention in Western hemisphere but also to intervene in domestic affairs of neighbors if they proved unable to maintain order and national sovereignty on own
(Result of: thinking European 'intrusion' into Latin America could result from from aggression and instability and irresponsibility of LAs)
Canal through Canada, shortening the route for A ships
African expression, have force/ threat at hand, for TR Us navy, used it as navy when building Panama canal, sent it to Colombia to remind them that they tried too hard to be independent from Panama
Policies of Taft: extend American investments into less developed regions
Lieutenant of Carranza, opposing Constitutionalist, began staging raids across Us border, Wilson began chasing him but nerve found him
What were TR's views on civilization?
Use American power in world: divided in civilized and uncivilized
Civilized: white, Anglo-Saxon, Teutonic; producers of industrial goods
Uncivilized: nonwhite, Latin, Slavic; suppliers of raw materials and markets for industrial products
Because economically linked civilized had right to intervene in affairs of unc. To preserve order and stability
Reason for support of navy
Do you agree or disagree with them today, why or why not?
Civilized don't have any right to intervene unless it is their own business
How did TR create the opportunity to build the Panama Canal?
Financed revolt in Panama, R landed troops in Panama 'to maintain order'. their presence prevented Colombian forces from suppressing rebellion, three days later R recognized Panama as independent nation, Panamanian government agreed to building canal
Why was the construction of it so challenging?
Never built anything like it, had to blast through tons of mountains stone, yellow fever and malaria
How was Taft's foreign policy different from TR's?
TR: thought could intervene in any nation in Western Hemisphere if it would help them
Taft: Dollar Diplomacy, influence in foreign countries through investment and trade, liked to show US military to protect business interest
How and why was U.S. foreign policy in Latin America under all three Presidents more about imperialism than about progressivism? Why?
Maintain power of those territories so Europeans would not seize them, more important for American business
Britain, France, Russia
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy (although they later joined Allies)
British ship carrying war goods, Germany posted many warnings, nevertheless British on board, torpedoed ship
Asked Mexico for help if war between US and Germany started, but intercepted by Britain
Result of enormous destructive power of newly improved machine guns and high powered artillery, trenches sheltered troops while allowing limited fighting, tanks and flamethrowers overtook trenches, new chemical weapons
How and where did WWI begin?
Murder of Serbian king and queen
Murder of Archduke Ferdinand
In Balkan tension against Austria Hungary
1870 war Preußen-France
France and England did not want Germany to become imperialistic power
Why did the U.S. remain neutral at the start of the war?
Domestic policies: debate over military and economic preparations
What evidence was there that the U.S. wasn't really neutral?
Still traded with Britain after naval blockade, many As favored Britain
What key events early in 1917 led the U.S. to declare war?
Lusitania, submarine warfare, bolshevik revolution, so didn't have to be allies with Russian monarchy
What were the new technologies used in the war, and to what effects?
Tanks, flamethrowers, submarine, planes, fast machine guns, chemical weapons, mustard gas
Brutal, required elaborate maintenance, had to wait for more supplies, made fighting limited and usually inconclusive
What was "life in the trenches" like?
Had to wear gas masks against chemicals
Used to raise money for war, sold bonds to public, gave US 23 billion
War Industries Board
Created to coordinate government purchases of military supplies, casually organized at first until under control of Bernard Baruch from Wall Street, he decided which factories would convert to production of which war materials, and set price for goods they produced
Principles for which he claimed nation was fighting, grouped war aims in 14 points in three broad categories
First eight: recommendations for setting new boundaries and creating new nations
Five after: governed international conduct in future: freedom of seas, open covenants instead of secret treaties, reductions in armaments, free trade impartial mediation of colonial claims
Last: proposal for League of Nations
League of Nations
Would help implement 14 points and territorial adjustments and resolve future controversies
Presented by Wilson
What were Pres. Wilson's 3 main objectives within his 14 Points?
1. League of Nations
2. Free trade across open seas
3. Self determination of people
Who at Versailles was opposed to many of his goals and why?
Who back in the U.S. was opposed (to Versailles treaty) and why?
Senate, some (irreconcilables) said A should remain free of binding foreign entanglements, many others (Senator Lodge among them) were concerned with constructing winning issue for Republicans
How did Wilson contribute to his own "downfall" ?
He held many public speeches, not enough rest, a lot of traveling, collapsed in the end, after that major stroke
Why can it be said that the Versailles Treaty produced a failed peace?
Left German economy in much debt, were embarassed
Blacks were determined to fight for their rights. almost half a million blacks migrated from rural South to industrial cities in search of factory jobs war was generating
Nearly thirty states enacted peacetime sedition laws imposing harsh penalties on promoters of revolution,
some spontaneous acts of violence against radicals, universities and other institutions tried to expel radicals from their midst.
greatest contribution to Red Scare came from government: Attorney General Palmer and his assistant launched raids on radical centers throughout country and arrested many people
Two Italian immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti were charged with murder of paymaster in South Braintree, MA, case against them was weak and suffused with prejudices and fears, but bc both were anarchists faced widespread presumption of guilt, were convicted and sentenced to death, some support them, claiming them guiltless, however, they died
What produced the Red Scare?
Bombings aimed at business man and politicians, later bombings in eight cities in US; result of communist government and creation of Comintern which purpose it was to export revolution around world
Why can it (Red Scare) be viewed as a realistic response?
That is what happened in Russia
Why can it (Red Scare) be seen as an overreaction with tragic consequences?
US was not a monarchy
What produced the race riots after WWI?
Blacks did not see the effects they wanted, Great migration, protested, whites did not agree and lynching started, brutal riots
Why did progressivism come to an end shortly after the war?
New Republican president elected with different ideals, no effort for progressivism
Also: economic problems, racial tensions, labor unrest, anti radicalism