Flashcards in US History - Progressivism - Assignments Deck (80)
Group of journalists that drew attention to social, economic and political injustice. Exposed scandal and corruption. First targets were trusts and railroads.
Peak of influence in first decade of 19th century: investigated governments, labor unions, corporations.
Part of Muckrakers. Produced study of Standard Oil trust.
Created Hull House
Settlement house in Chicago. Response to problems of crowded immigrant neighborhoods in cities. Became model for other institutions. Helped immigrant families to adapt to language and customs of US.
-> efforts of educated women
-> launched the profession of social work, especially for women
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Promoter of Woman Suffrage, thought women should have the same rights as men
Susan B Anthony
Carrie Chapman Catt
Journalist from Iowa, cofounded (?) Woman Suffrage Association, under her leadership grew enormously
Head of militant National Woman's party, argued 19th Amendment would not be enough to protect womens' rights, needed amendment that would provide clear legal protection for their rights and would prohibit discrimination based on sex, her argument found limited favor
What were the arguments for and against women's suffrage?
For: equal rights, would allow women to bring virtues more widely to bear on society's problems, would be important contribution to politics because the largest group of temperance movement would have political voice, war would become past bc women would end men's warlike behavior
Against: radical, old picture of women as wives and mothers, suffrage was associated with divorce, promiscuity, neglect of children
What factors were contributing to the "new," more assertive woman?
Insulation from political and professional life enhanced their ability to wield influence, women were having fewer children, had more time for themselves, many single women, higher level of education, formed clubs to help lower class
What factors finally contributed to the ratification of the 19th Amendment?
1920: Guaranteed political rights to women
mean same thing, petition process, in ballot get proposition that says they want or do not want something to happen and it becomes law, get around legislature
Robert M. LaFollette
Most celebrated state-level reformer, elected governor in 1900, turned his state Wisconsin into something called 'laboratory of progressivism'. Wisconsin progressives won approval of primaries, initiatives and referendums and other progressive stuff
Lobby and interest groups
Professional organizations, trade associations representing particular businesses and industries, labor organizations, farm lobbies and more. Some clubs as women's club needed to operate as interest clubs to advance demands.
New pattern of politics, in which individual interests organized to influence government
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Fire in factory of Triangle Shirtwaist Company in NY, many workers died, because trapped inside since emergency exists were locked by management
After, state commission studied cause for fire and condition of workplace. Issued reports that called for major reforms, that reached legislatures in Tammany Hall who created strict regulations on factory owners.
Challenged Washington who said blacks should concentrate later on political equality and first on self-improvement with his own book, accused him on limiting aspirations, said blacks should strive for full university education and fight for civil rights
Launched Niagara Movement and then cofounded NAACP. Fought for equal rights, lawsuits in federal courts were the weapons
Prohibition of alcohol
What were the primary aims and accomplishments of the progressives at the state and local levels?
Less control of legislatures, machines, bosses, parties
Child labor, worker's conditions, women work,
Why could the temperance movement be considered progressive? Why not?
It tried to help working class and fight against saloons/ boss machines
Direct primary and Recall
elect somebody and regret, sign petitions to have new election to replace that person the
US leading preservationist, founder of Sierra Club, added to National Park System (protect public land from exploitation or development)
Spent a lot of his time with controversy over Hetch Hetchy Valley (many wanted a reservoir fro dam, but naturalists wanted to protect it), Construction of dam won
Pure Food and Drug Act
Restricted sale of of dangerous or ineffective medicines
Meat Inspection Act
Response to book The Jungle; Helped eliminate many diseases transmitted in impure meat
What did Roosevelt feel was the U.S. government's role in business, particularly regarding monopolies and big business?
Mediator of public good, investigate businesses and publicize results
What laws did he propose to Congress that would help do this? (Government's role in business)
Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 (established ICC) was effort to regulate industry but later its influence was limited
Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906 sought to restore some authority to government by giving ICC authority to inspect books of railroad companies
Pure Food and Drug Act
Meat inspection Act
Eight-hour day for workers,
broader compensation for victims of industrial accidents,
inheritance and income taxes
Regulation of stock market
How did Roosevelt respond to the coal strike in 1902?
Asked operators and mines to accept impartial federal judgement, threatened to seize mines when owners refused
How was that different from his predecessors?
Used military to seize mines, used it in favor for miners, not operators
What was Roosevelt's position on the natural environment?
Conservation of environment
Protection of natural beauty of land and health of wildlife from humans
What did he do to accomplish this? (Conservation of environment)
Adding public land to national forest system
Establish government's role as manager of development of wilderness
Public reclamation and irrigation projects
National Reclamation Act: provided federal funds for construction of dams, reservoirs, canals in West