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expand world wide, acquire, colonies, or dominate country by controlling business


Reasons for imperialism

1. lingering feelings of Manifest Destiny- came from 1830s-40s, God gave US ability/ right to expand

2. Social Darwinist philosophy- wealthy superior, US was wealthy so superior

3. The West was “conquered,” so…. Nothing left to do in West

4. Europeans were doing so in Africa and Asia- compete with Europeans

5. Spain was losing its control of Latin America, so…. Except Cuba and Puerto Rico

6. American businesses were looking for new resources and markets-

7. Mahan’s naval thesis influenced political leaders like TR- strong navy needed to be world power, Roosevelt particularly interested in book and navy, and in A as world power



needed Harbors: Hawaii, Semoa (Pago Pago), Hongkong, Singapur, PEARL HARBOR

Many volcanoes, but good soil for growing, Hawaiians were farmers, established culture ​Early American involvement (what and why?)- US navy, sugar plantation

American business interests intensify after 1875, as do Hawaiian native responses. Why?- planted sugar canes for rum and sugar, missionaries came to christinize, brought protestant religion, schools, education, English, civilize/ Americanize population

1890-93 brings economic crisis, then political conflict; what was involved?- tax on sugar into US because of Louisiana and Texas

1898 brings annexation- so tax does not exist, Queen Lil doesnt want to be American, so says no to missionaries, US sends more war ships to Hawaii to pressure queen, still refuses, point at Palace, agrees to give up throne and is under house arrest



Where? South Pacific Ocean
What was involved? Was purchased for naval base
Why? How resolved? Bought up


Cuba - Puerto Rico

Context for U.S. involvement- Cuba and PR still controlled by Spain, but wanted their independence from Spain, supported independence in Cuba, some had come to grow sugar, wanted to make Cuba and Pr part of US, negative reports of US in yellow press, widely exaggerated but popular, Hearst said: you provide the correct the paintings, I provide the war, A wanted to liberate Cubans from "atrocities" of Spanish

​The “final straws” (causes for war)- sent Maine to Havana Harbor, Yellow Press said Spanish destroyed Maine

​“A Splendid Little War:” Secretary of State said it
​​Who fought? Spanish and Americans, Cuba

​​Where? Cuba, PR, Philippines

​​What was the fighting like? Brutal

​​What was the final outcome?

​What did the U.S. gain from the war? Cuba, PR, Philippines

​(What did the U.S. lose from fighting the war?)



Who tended to favor imperialism there and why? Teddy, Imperialists, planters, business men

Who opposed imperialism and why? Some planters, some social darwinists, racists, some thought it was immoral, quakers, Carnegy

(Did anyone really care about the Filipinos?) they wanted to be free, but lost argument

The Forgotten War in the Philippines, 1898-1902

​Why fought? US wanted to keep Philippines, but P wanted to keep independence

​How fought? Many died, very brutal, atrocities on both sides, fought in rain forest, diseases

​What resulted? Ended because tricked Philippine leader, in end Philippines stayed part of US, many costs, kept them till 1942, had naval base



Context for U.S. involvement- Shanghai controlled by Europeans

​The “Open Door” Policy: what was it? Open European Clubs so US could be part of Chinese market, use Philippines to get access

Why proposed? Big profits

Who gained? US gained because had acess to market, and also Christian missionaries

Lost? Chinese prestige, Chinese emperor lost power

Boxer Rebellion - rebellion in Shanghai against Europeans and US


Boxer rebellion

rebellion in Shanghai against Europeans and US