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Flashcards in US History - West - Notes Deck (11)
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Western environment

-high elevations-
-open spaces- not protected from wind by tree
Cleaner, less pollution


Native Americans

-coastal Indians-
-Pueblo Indians of the southwest (originally Anasazi, then renamed Hopi-
​or Navaho- in Arizona and New Mexico, natural gas mining
-the Plains Indians way of life revolved around the buffalo/bison- also hunted deer and gazelles
​Lakota Sioux-​ Arapahoe/Kiowa/Crow/Cheyenne-


Transcontinental Railroad

-building the railroad: difficulties encountered- a lot of workers needed, mostly Chinese, not treated well, when railroad finished, they were excluded, trouble with mountains, going through them took long way interesting solutions/strategies used- had to go around or through mountain
-immediate impact or influence- settlers poured in, so Indians attacked railroads and settlers long term consequences- railroad made possible the good economic situation, killed buffalos and indians


Economy of West

-continued importance of mining
-the growth of cattle herding and ranching
-the lowly, abused plains farmer


Plains Farmers

farmers grievances (why “abused”)- railroads abused farmers, you had to take harvest to railroad and railroads would change their rates

farmers responses? Formed coalition of farmers called Grange, would demand that congress should pass laws that regulate railroads, formed own political party called Populus, were successful in Kansas and Nebraska


Resettle Indians

-strategies of resettlement: first, reservations, including turning Indians into Americans - forcing them to be farmers, NA had no idea how to farm, many starved, separated young NA to boarding school, forced them to speak English and convert Christianity and cut hair then the Dawes Act- then back to reservations owned by tribes most money by taking government officials, but-


the Cheyenne example (including Sand Creek massacre)

also horsemen, hunted buffalo, women gathered berries, didn't like the railroads, peaceful Cheyenne were attacked by whites, were then killed by todays weapons


the Sioux (including Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull)

most feared, occupied parts of Minnesota, ND and Montana, didnt like that whites went into holy grounds, black hills in SD, for gold, didnt want to move to reservations, so resisted, Crazy Horse was the most famous war chief, sitting bull: tried to lead people to canada but then to reservation


the Nez Perce (including Chief Joseph)

pierced nose, tried to lead people into Canada, US army chased after Chief Joseph, blizzard killed his people


the Apache resistance (Geronimo-led)

warrior that attacked US army with gorilla tactics and hid in Mexico, them went back and attacked again, after ten years surrounded


Wounded Knee

the tragedy of Wounded Knee marked end of Indian wars, 1890 in South Dakota on Sioux reservation, carried out religious ceremony that was forbidden, then killed