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Bull Run/ Manassas

C won battle because of Stonewall Jackson and forced them to DC, defended Richmond



town in Western Tennessee, Union army bumped into C when they crossed TE, in less than an hour 5000 killed, General Grant leading victor, assigned to take over Vicksburg, takes him two years



in Maryland, victory for Union, important bc Great Britain announced since C lost they wouldn't support them, Lincoln said would free slaves into CF



in VA, Union General decided to send his soldiers three times up hill to CF, General leads back soldiers to DC



Union wanted to get rid of Vicksburg, also on hill, tried to attack from front, rear, side, didn't work, then waited, General drank, after four months, CF surrendered bc no food, siege



fell same weekend, big armies led by Robert E Lee, fought in Southern Pennsylvania, Robert E Lee doesn't get there in time, his army has to get up the hill, designated July 3, went to PE because thought it was right time, Lincoln takes it as sign that both Vicksburg and Gettysburg fell on weekend of July 4


Union advantages

1. A far larger population to draw soldiers from, to tax and gain supplies from:
22 million in the Union, plus new arrivals from Ireland; 9 million in the Confederacy, but 4 million were slaves so..
2. Union controlled 2/3 of the states, including the strategically important
​Border States; plus it controlled the Ohio River right from the start-
3. Twice as much railroad track , engines and cars -
4. 90% of the U.S. manufacturing was in the Union, including all the iron/steel
​factories except one-
5. 75% of the financial wealth (capital) was in or controlled by Union banks-
6. Union controlled the Navy –


Confederate Advantages

1. Confederacy fighting to preserve its way of life, and/or gaining its independence so was far more unified-
​2. geographically compact so more easily united and defended; defense was favored in warfare at that time-
​3. knew the territory well; well supported by the local population (while the locals hated the Yankee soldiers-
​4. had a head start in organizing its military- had more time to prepare
​5. Confederacy had far better generals and leaders, most notably Robert E. Lee, in charge of defend of Richmond
“Stonewall” Jackson, and other top graduates of West Point, and soldiers were better shots with guns having hunted more often than northerners- Generals of Union did not want to fight, Jackson was killed by own man by mistake
​6. Confederacy firmly believed that: Britain would come to its aid in order to guarantee the continuing export of cotton – British never officially accepted Confederacy and did not come for help
7. believed that the Union was disunited and disinterred in a long war, so would give up the fight after a few months, particularly if the South won a few early battles and Union casualties were high-


Union Strategy

1. use the Navy to blockade southern port cities, to prevent trade/aid-
2. capture the Confed. capital, Richmond- fell 1865, took 4 years, South defended capital until they were starving
3. gain complete control of the Mississippi River to split the Confederacy and cut off its main transportation route- successful in two years
4. further split the Confederacy, by sending Union armies from northwest Tenn diagonally southeastward where they would capture Nashville, Chattanooga, Atlanta, Savannah – dividing and taking over
During the last 2 years of the war the following goals were added:
5. make the war about slavery by promising to free the slaves in the Confederacy – only in the Confederacy, not those he controlled himself
6. practice “total war” against civilians; totally destroy southern property- burning down houses and farms, salt in the ground, convince the civilians to convince men fighting to stop fighting


Confederate Strategy

1. Defend, defend, defend, but don’t go on the offensive very often-
2. use diplomacy and economic pressure to gain support from Britain
3. protect Virginia and the capital Richmond at all costs-
4. wear the Union down, physically and spiritually so it would give up-


South after War

Human and Economic Loss
​​Over 250,000 dead and more than 200,000 more wounded
​​No remaining factories
​​Few operating rail lines
​​1,000’s of farms and plantations seriously damaged or destroyed
​​4 million slaves freed with no compensation and no economic future
​​little or no capital for rebuilding and much worthless Confed currency
​​significant debts at the state, local, and personal levels