Viral diarrhoea and C diff infection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Viral diarrhoea and C diff infection Deck (42):
1

What is the commonest cause of diarrhoea in kids under 3 years old?

Rotavirus

2

How is rotavirus spread?

Person to person
faecal-oral
Direct and indirect

3

When are most cases of Rotavirus contracted?

The winter

4

What effects does Rotavirus have in adults?

Subclinical or mild cases in adults

5

Which group of patients can be severely affected by Rotavirus?

The immunocomprimised

6

What are the features of Rotavirus infection?

Range of symptoms- Mild watery diarrhoea to profuse, and the patient can go into shock
Patient may have moderate fever first, then vomiting then diarrhoea.
The diarrhoea is not bloody
It is self limiting and lasts for about a week.

7

Does rotavirus have a low or a high infectious dose?

Low

8

Can rota virus survive outside of a host?

Yes, it can survive in the environment

9

What functions of the bowel are affected by rotavirus?

Absorption and secretion

10

What complication may children get post rotavirus infection?
What is the effect of this?

Malabsorption.
This leads to more diarrhoea.
There can be repeat infections which get milder each time.
There can be outbreaks.

11

How is rotavirus diagnosed?

PCR on faeces

12

How is rotavirus infection managed?

It is self limiting
Management is rehydration therapy
This is done orally where possible i.e. in mild/moderate disease
Antibiotics should not be prescribed

13

How can rotavirus be prevented?

Vaccination
An oral, live attenuated vaccine
There are 2 doses at 2 and 3 months

14

Who is the rotavirus vaccine not given to?

A first dose is not given to babies over 15 weeks old
No dose is give to babies over 24 weeks old

15

What is norovirus known as?

The winter vomiting disease
However, lately it has been causing illness all year round

16

Which ages are affected by norovirus?

All ages
It is highly infectious

17

How is norovirus spread?

Faecal-oral
Droplet
It can be spread person to person or from contaminated food or water

18

How long can norovirus survive in the environment for?

It can survive on fomites for days-weeks

19

What is the reservoir for norovirus?

Community circulation

20

What symptoms does norovirus cause?

Abrupt and unpredictable onset of symptoms
Explosive and sudden vomiting and diarrhoea
Vomiting can lead to widespread environmental contamination and onward transmission

21

What is the incubation and duration period of norovirus?

It has a short incubation period of <24 hours
it lasts 2-4 days

22

How is norovirus diagnosed?

PCR on stool or vomit

23

How is norovirus managed?

It is self limiting but very unpleasant
Rehydration therapy
Early ward closure, isolation and cohorting required.

24

Which patients can die partly due to norovirus?

The frail and elderly

25

What percentage of healthy adults have C difficile in their faeces?

2-5%

26

What percentage of hospital patients are colonised with C difficile?

10%

27

What age group has high levels of C diff in their faeces but are not infected?

Babies

28

What is C diff infection a side effect of?

Antibiotic treatment, as a result of disruption of the normal bowel flora

29

What does C diff produce?

It produces two toxins:
Toxin A is an enterotoxin
Toxin B is cytotoxic and causes bloody diarrhoea

30

What are the clinical features of C diff infection?

C diff associated diarrhoea an begin 2 days to some months after taking the antibiotics
Elderly hospitalised patients are most frequently affected
Symptoms can range from mild diarrhoea to profuse, water, haemorrhagic colitis, along with lower abdominal pain.
There is pseudomembranous colitis
Relapses/reinfections are common (30%)

31

How is C diff diagnosed?

Stool testing- microbiology
1. Sensitive screening test detects both C diff antigen and toxin
2. More specific test applied to screen positives: toxins by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay)
3. Culture: ribotyping
Screening tests positive and toxin positive = positive
Screening positive and toxin negative = indeterminate- re-assess and repeat.
Sigmoidoscopy - membranous lesions
CT scan

32

What antibiotics can cause C diff infection?

Any, but especially those beginning with C

33

What percentage of C diff infection is acquired in the community?

40%

34

What are risk factors for C diff infection?

Recent antibiotics
Surgery
Hospital
Use of stomach acid suppressants like PPI

35

How is a patient with an indeterminate test result managed?

Singe room
Contact precautions
Close assessment

36

How is CDI incidence controlled?

Good infection control (cleaning and bleach)
Strict control on antibiotic use
Surveillance at local level
Handwashing - not gels

37

When are more cases of C diff infection seen?

Winter

38

Name some non-gut infections which are spread by the faecal-oral route

Hep A
Typhoid
Vancomycin resistant enterococci

39

Which patients with a gut infection are the most infectious?

Those with diarrhoea

40

What are contact precautions for?

To prevent spread via contact with contaminated hands
To prevent indirect spread via contaminated equipment/environment

41

What are the contact precautions for infectious diarrhoea?

Single room
Cohort bay
Hand washing- not gel
Glove use
Apron if anticipate contamination
Sometimes ward closure
Limit movement
Single use items
Cleaning/disinfection of items
Report all exposures to infective material

42

Is all diarrhoea infection?

No

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