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Flashcards in Anatomy of jaundice Deck (37):
1

Which ribs protect the spleen?

Ribs 9-11

2

What is the blood supply to the stomach?

The right and left gastric arteries running along the lesser curvature
The right and left gastro-omental arteries which run along the greater curvature

3

Where does the left gastro-omental artery arise from?

The splenic artery

4

Where does the right gastric artery arise from?

The hepatic artery

5

What connects the right and left gastro-omental arteries?

An anastamoses

6

What does the hepatic artery bifurcate into?

The right and left hepatic arteries

7

Why does a rise in central venous pressure cause hepatomegaly?

Because the IVC and the hepatic veins lack valves

8

What are the four lobes of the liver?

Right lobe
Left lobe
Caudate lobe
Quadrate lobe

9

What is the name of the space between the liver and the right kidney?

The hepatorenal recess

10

What is the name of the recess between the liver and the diaphragm

The subphrenic recess

11

What ligaments attach the liver to the diaphragm?

The coronary ligaments

12

What ligament attaches the liver to the abdominal wall?

The falciform ligament

13

What ligament is the remnant of the embryological umbilical vein?

The round ligament/ligamentum teres

14

What is the cystic artery a branch of in 75% of people?

The right hepatic artery

15

Where does the gallbladder lie in relation to the liver?

On the posterior aspect

16

Where do visceral afferents from the gallbladder enter the spinal cord?

Between T6 and T9

17

Where can early pain from the gallbladder present?

In the epigastric region
It can also present in the right hyperchondrial region with or without referral to the right shoulder as a result of anterior diagphragmatic irritation

18

What is the first branch to come off the hepatic artery? (inferiorly)

The gastroduodenal artery

19

Which branch of the gastro-duodenal artery descends over the anterior aspect of the head of the pancreas?

The superior pancreatico-duodenal

20

What forms the bile duct/common bile duct?

The union of the cystic duct with the common hepatic duct

21

What forms the common hepatic duct?

The union of the right and left hepatic ducts

22

What is ERCP?

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

23

What is ERCP used for?
How does it work?

investigation used to study the biliary tree and pancreas (and treat certain pathologies associated)
• endoscope inserted through oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and into duodenum
• cannula placed into major duodenal papilla and radio-opaque dye injected back into biliary tree
• radiographic images taken of the dye-filled biliary tree

24

How does the bile duct get to the duodenum?

The bile duct descends posterior to the 1st (superior) part of the duodenum and into a groove in the posterior aspect of the pancreas.
It then joins with the main pancreatic duct and both drain into the 2nd part of the duodenum through the major duodenal papilla

25

What is formed by the union of the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct?

The ampulla of vater/
the hepatopancreatic ampulla

26

Name 3 sphincters in the biliary tree

Sphincter of oddi
Bile duct sphincter
Pancreatic duct sphincter

27

What are the different parts of the pancreas?

The head with an uncinate process
The neck
The body
The tail

28

Which cavity is the pancreas found in?

The retroperitoneum

29

Is the pancreas a foregut, midgut or hindgut organ?

It is a foregut and a midgut organ

30

Where can pain from the pancreas present?

In the epigastric and/or the umbilical region

31

Which parts of the duodenum are foregut organs?

The first and second parts

32

How many parts does the duodenum have?
What are they?

It has four parts.
1. Superior (part intraperitoneal)
2. Descending (retroperitoneal)
3. Horizontal (retroperitoneal)
4. Ascending (retroperitoneal)

33

What is the inital section of the first part of the duodenum called?

The duodenal cap
It is intraperitoneal and relatively mobile

34

Which arteries supply the duodenum?

The gastro-duodenal artery
The superior mesenteric artery

35

What are the main groups of lymph node draining the abdominal organs?

Coeliac - draining the foregut organs
Superior mesenteric- draining the midgut organs
Inferior mesenteric- draining the hindgut organs
Lumbar- draining kidneys, posterior abdominal wall, pelvis and lower limbs

36

Where does the right lymphatic duct drain into?

The right venous angle:
The angle between the right subclavian and right internal jugular veins

37

Where does the thoracic duct drain into?

The left venous angle:
The angle between the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins

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