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Flashcards in Anatomy of jaundice Deck (37):

Which ribs protect the spleen?

Ribs 9-11


What is the blood supply to the stomach?

The right and left gastric arteries running along the lesser curvature
The right and left gastro-omental arteries which run along the greater curvature


Where does the left gastro-omental artery arise from?

The splenic artery


Where does the right gastric artery arise from?

The hepatic artery


What connects the right and left gastro-omental arteries?

An anastamoses


What does the hepatic artery bifurcate into?

The right and left hepatic arteries


Why does a rise in central venous pressure cause hepatomegaly?

Because the IVC and the hepatic veins lack valves


What are the four lobes of the liver?

Right lobe
Left lobe
Caudate lobe
Quadrate lobe


What is the name of the space between the liver and the right kidney?

The hepatorenal recess


What is the name of the recess between the liver and the diaphragm

The subphrenic recess


What ligaments attach the liver to the diaphragm?

The coronary ligaments


What ligament attaches the liver to the abdominal wall?

The falciform ligament


What ligament is the remnant of the embryological umbilical vein?

The round ligament/ligamentum teres


What is the cystic artery a branch of in 75% of people?

The right hepatic artery


Where does the gallbladder lie in relation to the liver?

On the posterior aspect


Where do visceral afferents from the gallbladder enter the spinal cord?

Between T6 and T9


Where can early pain from the gallbladder present?

In the epigastric region
It can also present in the right hyperchondrial region with or without referral to the right shoulder as a result of anterior diagphragmatic irritation


What is the first branch to come off the hepatic artery? (inferiorly)

The gastroduodenal artery


Which branch of the gastro-duodenal artery descends over the anterior aspect of the head of the pancreas?

The superior pancreatico-duodenal


What forms the bile duct/common bile duct?

The union of the cystic duct with the common hepatic duct


What forms the common hepatic duct?

The union of the right and left hepatic ducts


What is ERCP?

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography


What is ERCP used for?
How does it work?

investigation used to study the biliary tree and pancreas (and treat certain pathologies associated)
• endoscope inserted through oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach and into duodenum
• cannula placed into major duodenal papilla and radio-opaque dye injected back into biliary tree
• radiographic images taken of the dye-filled biliary tree


How does the bile duct get to the duodenum?

The bile duct descends posterior to the 1st (superior) part of the duodenum and into a groove in the posterior aspect of the pancreas.
It then joins with the main pancreatic duct and both drain into the 2nd part of the duodenum through the major duodenal papilla


What is formed by the union of the bile duct and the main pancreatic duct?

The ampulla of vater/
the hepatopancreatic ampulla


Name 3 sphincters in the biliary tree

Sphincter of oddi
Bile duct sphincter
Pancreatic duct sphincter


What are the different parts of the pancreas?

The head with an uncinate process
The neck
The body
The tail


Which cavity is the pancreas found in?

The retroperitoneum


Is the pancreas a foregut, midgut or hindgut organ?

It is a foregut and a midgut organ


Where can pain from the pancreas present?

In the epigastric and/or the umbilical region


Which parts of the duodenum are foregut organs?

The first and second parts


How many parts does the duodenum have?
What are they?

It has four parts.
1. Superior (part intraperitoneal)
2. Descending (retroperitoneal)
3. Horizontal (retroperitoneal)
4. Ascending (retroperitoneal)


What is the inital section of the first part of the duodenum called?

The duodenal cap
It is intraperitoneal and relatively mobile


Which arteries supply the duodenum?

The gastro-duodenal artery
The superior mesenteric artery


What are the main groups of lymph node draining the abdominal organs?

Coeliac - draining the foregut organs
Superior mesenteric- draining the midgut organs
Inferior mesenteric- draining the hindgut organs
Lumbar- draining kidneys, posterior abdominal wall, pelvis and lower limbs


Where does the right lymphatic duct drain into?

The right venous angle:
The angle between the right subclavian and right internal jugular veins


Where does the thoracic duct drain into?

The left venous angle:
The angle between the left subclavian and left internal jugular veins

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