Oesophageal tumours - pathology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Oesophageal tumours - pathology Deck (14):
1

How common are benign oesophageal tumours?

Uncommon- they make up 5% of neoplasms of the oesophagus.

2

What are the most common benign oesophageal tumours?

Leiomyoma- smooth muscle tumours

3

What is another type of benign oesophageal tumour?

Squamous papilloma
This is rare and asymptomatic
It is related to HPV

4

What are the 2 main types of malignant oesophageal tumour?

Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma

5

What do most adenocarcinomas arise from?

Barrett's oesophagus

6

What are the main risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma?

Tobacco
Alcohol
Nitrosamine in picked/mouldy food
Vitamin deficiencies (A) and zinc deficiency
Repeated thermal injuries due to hot beverages
HPV infection

7

Is squamous cell carcinoma more common in males or females?

Males

8

What do squamous cell carcinomas arise from?

Squamous epithelium
They may be preceded by dysplastic changes

9

Where in the oesophagus are adenocarcinomas most common?

In the lower 1/3 of the oesophagus

10

What are the most common predisposing factors for adenocarcinomas?

GORD and Barrett's oesophagus

11

Describe the classic pathogenesis of adenocarcinoma in the oesophagus

Genetic factors, reflux disease, others
--> Chronic reflux oesophagitis
--> Barrett's oesophagus
--> low grade dysplasia
--> high grade dysplasia
--> adenocarcinoma

12

How does a carcinoma of the oesophagus usually develop?

It usually commences as an ulcer and spreads to become annular and constricting so the patient develops dysphagia

13

What is the prognosis for oesophageal cancer?

Prognosis is dependent on disease stage at presentation
5 year survival for cancers confined to the mucosa on presentation is 90%
5 year survival for patients with widespread local disease or systemic disease at presentation is < 10%

14

How is non-curable oesophageal cancer treated?

Palliative chemotherapy
Palliative chemoradiotherapy
Stent to improve swallowing function

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