Visual Perspective Taking and Metacognition Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Visual Perspective Taking and Metacognition Deck (10):
1

What is visual perspective taking supposed to show?

Theory of mind - being able to put yourself in anthers shows and understand what they see

2

Give 2 studies looking at visual perspective taking in chimps

Tomasello 1999
- only small proportion of chimps looked around barrier towards stimulus, but of these few the majority of them only did so when the experimenter did too.
Povinelli 1990 - bucket head blinded guesser and knower paradigm - didn't perform well to being with indicating some learning occurred

3

Give a study looking at visual perspective taking in dogs

Miklosi 1998 - gesticulating/looking at bowls
perform better than monkeys probably due to prior experience of gesticulating

4

What is deemed to be a more ecologically valid approach to studying visual perspective taking?

Tomasello 2003 - Sub/dom looking at food hidden behind barrier
- sub can see food being placed, dom cannot
- only goes for food when thinks dom hasn't seen it ie. behind barrier
- other interpretations and corresponding controls
-> barrier = safety, perspex used, sub avoids food when barrier is see-through even though still protective. Only one monkey used, no preference for eating next to barrier in its own right.
-> "evil eye" - Dom intimidates sub by looking at food. Doms door kept shut while sub choses food.

5

According to Povinelli and Vonk, 2003, how is behaviour predicted?

Contingencies and situational clues
- may not necessarily require understanding of mental states of others, despite using very complex ways of prediction
eg. Don't go after the food if the dominant has orientating to it [because he has seen it and knows where it is]
eg. he was present and facing the food when it was placed [so he saw it being placed and knows where it is] therefore he is likely to go after it

6

Does the presence of higher cognitive abilities influences likelihood of consciousness and ability to suffer?

Who knows?!

7

What are the two types of memory?

Implicit - behaviour changed but subconsciously, subjects cannot verbally report on contents
Explicit - can verbally report on contents

8

Who investigated "do animals know what they remember?"
ie. metacognition

Hampton 2001 - within study either forced to continue with memory trial or given the option to opt out and not receive such a good food reward
- performed better when choosing to do the task than if forced
- will choose to decline more often if time period between stimuli is increased (indicating more likely have forgotten and know they have forgotten?)
-> may still be subconscious just two levels

9

How may cognitive complexity impact "feelings consciousness" based decisions if not directly linked?

- May increase range of situations where animals are able to anticipate +/- events -> anxiety, expectancy
- Increase range and complexity of situations leading to socially induced stress eg. witnessing others suffering
- May increase COPING mechanisms - predicting behaviour of others, avoiding situations, learning that a procedure is only short lived i.e. could decrease stress

10

Define metacognition

Cognition about cognition - thinking about thinking - knowing what we know!