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Flashcards in Vitamins & Minerals Deck (14):

Vitamin A

Function: visual pigment, antioxidant, tissue differentiation
Deficiency: night blindness, dry scaly skin, alopecia, corneal degeneration, squamous metaplasia, immune system inhibition
Overdose: arthralgias, skin changes, alopecia, cerebral edema, osteoperosis, liver dysfunction, teratogen


Thiamine (vitamin B1)

Function: in thiamine pyrophosphate - a cofactor in dehydrogenase reactions (TCA cycle, HMP shunt)
Deficiency: impaired glucose breakdown and ATP depletion > Wernicke-Korsakoff, dry beriberi (polyneuritis, muscle wasting), wet beriberi (high output cardiac failure)


Riboflavin (vitamin B2)

Function: component of FAD and FMN - cofactors in redox reactions (TCA cycle)
Deficiency: cheliosis, corneal vascularization (2 Cs)


Niacin (vitamin B3)

Function: component of NAD and NADP; derived from tryptophan and synthesis requires B2 and B6
Deficiency: glossitis, pellagra (diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis)
Overdose: flushing, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia


Pantothenate (vitamin B5)

Function: component of coenzyme A, required for acyl transfers and fatty acid synthesis
Deficiency: dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, adrenal insufficiency


Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)

Function: converted to pyridoxal phosphate, a cofactor in transamination, decarboxylation, glycogen phosphorylase, synthesis of many NTs, heme, histamine, niacin
Deficiency: convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy, sideroblastic anemia


Biotin (vitamin B7)

Function: co-factor for carboxylation enzymes
Deficiency: dermatitis, alopecia, enteritis; caused by eating too many egg whites


Folic acid (vitamin B9)

Function: converted to THF - important for the synthesis of nitrogenous bases
Deficiency: macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia with hypersegmented PMNs, glossitis


Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)

Function: co-factor for homocysteine methyltransferase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
Deficiency: macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia with hypersegmented PMNs + paresthesias, subacute combined degeneration


Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)

Function: antioxidant, hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis, conversion of dopamine to NE, aids in iron absorption
Deficiency: scurvy (swollen gums, bruising, hemarthrosis, anemia, poor wound healing, perifollicular and subperiosteal hemorrhages)
Overdose: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, Ca nephrolithiasis


Vitamin D

Function: intestinal absorption of Ca and phosphate, bone mineralization
Deficiency: rickets or osteomalacia, hypocalcemic tetany
Overdose: hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, loss of appetite, stupor


Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Function: antioxidant
Deficiency: hemolytic anemia, acanthocytosis, muscle weakness, posterior column and spinocerebellar demyelination


Vitamin K

Function: co-factor in gamma carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on clotting factors II, VII, IX, X, proteins C and S
Deficiency: neonatal hemorrhage



Function: essential for 100+ enzymes
Deficiency: delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, dysgeusia (loss of taste), anosmia, acrodermatitis enteropathica (scaly, red lesions)