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Flashcards in Vitivulture/Viniculture Deck (52)
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What is Oidium; how does it affect vines

Powdery Mildew: Fungal Disease

Oidium inhibits bunch development and ripening. If the vine is infected prior to flowering, yields will be reduced.

If the vine is infected after fruit set, berries will struggle to achieve veraison and full size

Rainfall helps to serve as a detriment to the spores


What is Peronospora; how does it affect the vine

Downy Mildew: Fungal Disease

Peronospora attacks the green portions of the plant causing leaves to fall off and limiting the vines ability to photosynthesize.

Arid climate and Bordeaux Mixture (Copper sulfate, water and lime) prevent outbreaks


What is Eutypa Dieback; how does it affect the vine

AKA "Dead Arm": Fungal Disease

Spores enter the "pruning wounds" of the vine and stunt the growth of shoots. Effected canes may eventually die.

The disease drastically effects yield, but has no effect on the quality of the crop; d'Arenberg uses it as a marketing term for his "Dead Arm Shiraz" ascribing a beneficial effect.


What is Esca; How does it affect a vine

Black Measles: Fungal disease

stunts growth and berry development and may even kill in young vines

In older vines it softens and rots the interior of the trunk causing the vine to rarely live past 30 years

There is no cure that is known and the disease is exacerbated by rainfall and can be spread by wind or contaminated pruning shears


What is Black Rot and how does it affect vines

Fungal Disease

The vine shows black spots on the shoots leaves and berries. Can cause yield reductions if unchecked but can be controlled through fungicide sprays


What is Bunch Rot and how does it affect the vines

Fungal Disease

Grouping of similar diseases caused by a number of fungal species.

Reduces crop yields and can affect the character of the wine by contributing moldy flavors

Botrytis is one type of bunch rot


What is Pierce's Disease; how does it affect vines

Bacterial Disease

Transmitted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter

Prohibits vines from producing chlorophyll and killing them off within 1-5 years

There is no cure or chemical control


What is Crown Gall; how does it affect vines

Black Knot: Bacterial Disease

Vines affected develop tumors (galls) on the trunk which strangle the vine. During winter freezes the trunk can rupture and rapidly spread the galls to the outside of the plant


What is Bacterial Blight; how does it affect vines

Bacterial Disease

Kills young grapevine shoots

Can be controlled with hot water treatments and Bordeaux Mixture


What is Leafroll Virus; how does it affect vines

Viral disease caused by complex of different viruses

Causes beautiful vibrant colors in the autumn but leads to reduced yields and delayed ripening


What is Fanleaf Degeneration; how does it affect the vines

Viral disease

Deforms shoot growth, leads to poor fruit set and shot (seedless) berries


What is Flavescence Dorée; how does it affect vines

Phytoplasma Disease

Delays budbreak and slows shoot growth causing bunches to drop and grapes to shrivel.

No cure exists, but insecticides can kill bugs transmitting the disease amongst vines


When does budbreak take place

March or April: Early spring


When does flowering take place

6-13 weeks after budbreak


When does veraison normally take place



What is the minimum required hours of sunshine to support vinifera

1300 hours


What is the average required rainfall for vinifera

20-30 inches


Which American grapevine species was mostly used for grafting to defend against Phylloxera

Vitis Riparia


What is Albarello

The term for head trained vines in Italy


What is En Vaso

The term for head trained vines in Spain


What is Pergola

The term for Tendone trained vines in Italy in which a canopy that can be walked under hangs over head


What is Enforcado

The term for Tendone trained vines in Portugal in which a canopy that can be walked under hangs over head


Define Pigeage

Punching down of the cap during fermentation


Define Remontage

Pumping juice over the cap during fermentation


Define Délestage

"Rack and refill" the fermentation vessel is completely emptied and then the juice is pumped back over the cap to fill the vessel again


What is vin de goutte

High quality free run wine drawn first from a fermentation tank after fermentation is done


What is vin de presse

Pressed wine from the remaining pomace after the vin de goutte is drained off; this wine is coarser and more tannic


Define Soutirage

Racking wine from one container to another to remove sediment or lees


Define Collage

Fining of wine using one of many fining agents such as:
-Bentonite (Clay)
-Casein (Milk Protein)
-Isinglass (Sturgeon Bladder)
-Egg White


What are the main fining agents used in wine making

-Bentonite (Clay)
-Casein (Milk Protein)
-Isinglass (Sturgeon Bladder)
-Egg White