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Flashcards in Vitivulture/Viniculture Deck (52):
1

What is Oidium; how does it affect vines

Powdery Mildew: Fungal Disease

Oidium inhibits bunch development and ripening. If the vine is infected prior to flowering, yields will be reduced.

If the vine is infected after fruit set, berries will struggle to achieve veraison and full size

Rainfall helps to serve as a detriment to the spores

2

What is Peronospora; how does it affect the vine

Downy Mildew: Fungal Disease

Peronospora attacks the green portions of the plant causing leaves to fall off and limiting the vines ability to photosynthesize.

Arid climate and Bordeaux Mixture (Copper sulfate, water and lime) prevent outbreaks

3

What is Eutypa Dieback; how does it affect the vine

AKA "Dead Arm": Fungal Disease

Spores enter the "pruning wounds" of the vine and stunt the growth of shoots. Effected canes may eventually die.

The disease drastically effects yield, but has no effect on the quality of the crop; d'Arenberg uses it as a marketing term for his "Dead Arm Shiraz" ascribing a beneficial effect.

4

What is Esca; How does it affect a vine

Black Measles: Fungal disease

stunts growth and berry development and may even kill in young vines

In older vines it softens and rots the interior of the trunk causing the vine to rarely live past 30 years

There is no cure that is known and the disease is exacerbated by rainfall and can be spread by wind or contaminated pruning shears

5

What is Black Rot and how does it affect vines

Fungal Disease

The vine shows black spots on the shoots leaves and berries. Can cause yield reductions if unchecked but can be controlled through fungicide sprays

6

What is Bunch Rot and how does it affect the vines

Fungal Disease

Grouping of similar diseases caused by a number of fungal species.

Reduces crop yields and can affect the character of the wine by contributing moldy flavors

Botrytis is one type of bunch rot

7

What is Pierce's Disease; how does it affect vines

Bacterial Disease

Transmitted by the glassy-winged sharpshooter

Prohibits vines from producing chlorophyll and killing them off within 1-5 years

There is no cure or chemical control

8

What is Crown Gall; how does it affect vines

Black Knot: Bacterial Disease

Vines affected develop tumors (galls) on the trunk which strangle the vine. During winter freezes the trunk can rupture and rapidly spread the galls to the outside of the plant

9

What is Bacterial Blight; how does it affect vines

Bacterial Disease

Kills young grapevine shoots

Can be controlled with hot water treatments and Bordeaux Mixture

10

What is Leafroll Virus; how does it affect vines

Viral disease caused by complex of different viruses

Causes beautiful vibrant colors in the autumn but leads to reduced yields and delayed ripening

11

What is Fanleaf Degeneration; how does it affect the vines

Viral disease

Deforms shoot growth, leads to poor fruit set and shot (seedless) berries

12

What is Flavescence Dorée; how does it affect vines

Phytoplasma Disease

Delays budbreak and slows shoot growth causing bunches to drop and grapes to shrivel.

No cure exists, but insecticides can kill bugs transmitting the disease amongst vines

13

When does budbreak take place

March or April: Early spring

14

When does flowering take place

6-13 weeks after budbreak

15

When does veraison normally take place

August

16

What is the minimum required hours of sunshine to support vinifera

1300 hours

17

What is the average required rainfall for vinifera

20-30 inches

18

Which American grapevine species was mostly used for grafting to defend against Phylloxera

Vitis Riparia

19

What is Albarello

The term for head trained vines in Italy

20

What is En Vaso

The term for head trained vines in Spain

21

What is Pergola

The term for Tendone trained vines in Italy in which a canopy that can be walked under hangs over head

22

What is Enforcado

The term for Tendone trained vines in Portugal in which a canopy that can be walked under hangs over head

23

Define Pigeage

Punching down of the cap during fermentation

24

Define Remontage

Pumping juice over the cap during fermentation

25

Define Délestage

"Rack and refill" the fermentation vessel is completely emptied and then the juice is pumped back over the cap to fill the vessel again

26

What is vin de goutte

High quality free run wine drawn first from a fermentation tank after fermentation is done

27

What is vin de presse

Pressed wine from the remaining pomace after the vin de goutte is drained off; this wine is coarser and more tannic

28

Define Soutirage

Racking wine from one container to another to remove sediment or lees

29

Define Collage

Fining of wine using one of many fining agents such as:
-Bentonite (Clay)
-Casein (Milk Protein)
-Isinglass (Sturgeon Bladder)
-Gelatin
-Egg White

30

What are the main fining agents used in wine making

-Bentonite (Clay)
-Casein (Milk Protein)
-Isinglass (Sturgeon Bladder)
-Gelatin
-Egg White

31

Define Débourbage

Allowing settling of sediment in wine

32

What is Sussreserve

Sterilized fresh grape juice added to white wine after fermentation to add back sweetness. This is done in Germany

33

What are the two types of Oak used for French Oak barrel production

-Quercus Robur
-Quercus Petraea

34

What is the type of Oak used for American Oak barrel production

Quercus Alba

35

Define Chauffage

Heating of the oak staves before shaping in barrel production

36

Define Cintrage

Shaping oak staves into barrels

37

Define Bousinage

Toasting of the interior of a barrel

38

How many acres are in a hectare

2.471 acres

39

How many liters are in a hectolitre? How many gallons?

-100 liters
-26.418 gallons

40

Capacity of a Barrique

225L from Bordeaux

41

Capacity of a Pièce

228L from Burgundy

42

Capacity of Cognac Barrel

350L

43

Capacity of a Champagne Barrel

205L

44

Capacity of a Demi-Muid

600L from Southern Rhone

45

Capacity of a Fuder

1000L in the Mosel

46

Capacity of a Stück

1200L in the Rheingau

47

Capacity of a Caratelli

50-225L used in the production of Vin Santo in Italy

48

Capacity of a Tonneau

550L in Italy

49

Capacity of a Gönc

136L used in Tokaj

50

Capacity of an American Oak Whiskey Barrel

190L

51

Capacity of a Hogshead

300L in Australia

52

Capacity of a Puncheon

450-500L in Australia