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Flashcards in Vocab 2 Deck (60)
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1

15th amendment

Prohibited states from denying African American male votes. Circumvented through poll taxes and literacy tests.

2

Fiscal year

12 month period starting on October 1. Gov budgets go into effect at the beginning of fiscal year.

3

Freedom of Information Act

Declassified government documents for public use.

4

Front-loading

States push forward the date of their primary elections.

5

"Full faith and credit" clause

Requires states to honor one another's licenses, marriages, and other acts of state courts.

6

Gerrymandering

Drawing congressional district lines to benefit one party over the other.

7

Gram-Rudman-Holings Bill

Set budget reduction targets to balance budget but failed to eliminate loopholes

8

Great Society

Lyndon B Johnson; social/economic program, aimed at raising the standard of living for American's poorest residents. Medicare, Medicaid, Project Head Start, Volunteers in Service to America, etc.

9

Hatch Act

Forbade government officials from participating in partisan politics and protected federal employees from being fired on partisan grounds.

10

House Rules Committee

(Only in the H. of Reps) Determines the rules for debate of each bill, and whether a bill may be amended. MOST POWERFUL COMMITEE IN THE HOUSE.

11

Indictment

Written statement of criminal charges brought against a defendant.

12

Inevitable discovery

Exception to exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial if the court determines that the evidence would eventually have been found by legal means.

13

Initiative

Process by which voters may propose new laws.

14

Interest group

Political group organized around a particular goal or philosophy.

15

Iron triangle

"Sub-governments" close working of interest groups, congressional committees, and executive agencies to exert a powerful influence over legislation and law enforcement.

16

Jim Crow laws

State & local laws passed in post-Reconstruction era to enforce racial segregation.

17

Joint committee

Congressional committee composed of both houses.

18

Judicial activism

Actions of a court that frequently strikes down or alters the acts of the executive and/or legislative actions.

19

Judicial restraint

Actions of a court that demonstrates an unwillingness to break with precedent or to overturn legislative and executive acts

20

Judicial Review

Supreme Court power to declare laws & executive actions unconstitutional.

21

Legislative oversight

Check the power of the executive branch; investigate and evaluate the performance of corresponding executive agencies and departments.

22

Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

Closed the loophole that limited suits on discrimination pay

23

Line-item veto

Governors have this power, not president. Excise some portions of a spending bill without rejecting the whole bill.

24

John Marshall

3rd Chief Justice. Federalist who worked to increase the powers of the federal government over the states. Established judicial review in Marbury v. Madison

25

National convention

Political party officially announces its presidential nomination and reveals its party platform.

26

National Organization for Women (NOW)

Feminist political group to promote legislative change.

27

National Security Council

Presidential advisory board. Consults with the president on matters of defense and foreign policy.

28

Objective good faith

Exception to the exclusionary rule that allows the use of illegally obtained evidence at trial if the court determines that police believed they were acting within the limits of their search warrant.

29

Office of Management and Budget (OMB)

Executive branch office responsible for drawing up the president's proposals for the fed budget.

30

Open primary

Primary election in which voters may vote in whichever party primary they choose, though they must select that party before entering the voting booth.

31

Patriot Act (2001)

Passed in response to 9/11. Granted police authority to the federal, state, and local governments to interdict, prosecute, and convict suspected terrorists.

32

Poison-pill Amendment (Killer Amendment)

Amendment to a bill proposed by its opponents to decrease the bill's chance of passage.

33

Policy Implementation

Process by which executive departments and agencies put legislation into practice.

34

Political Action Committee (PAC)

Fundraising apparatus of interest groups. Regulated by federal law. Contribute heavily to the reelection campaigns of representatives.

35

Populists

Mostly farmers and working-class. Sought inflationary economic policies to increase farm income. Also lobbied for a number of Democratic reforms that would later be adopted by progressives.

36

Pork barrel

Budget items to benefit constituents in their home state or district. Politically beneficial

37

Prior restraint

Censorship of news material before it is made public.

38

Privileges and immunities clause.

State may not refuse police protection or access to its courts to a U.S. citizen bc they live in a different state.

39

Progressive income tax

Increases tax rates for people with higher incomes.

40

Quorum

Minimum number of people required for the legislature to act.

41

Realignment

Groups of people composing the party coalition may split up. Rare. Last one was during the New Deal

42

Recall election

Process through which voters can shorten an office holder's term.

43

Regulatory agency

Executive agency responsible for enforcing laws pertaining to a certain industry. Write guidelines for the industry, such as safety codes, and enforces them. I.E.: federal reserve board, EPA

44

Reserved powers

Constitutional powers that belong solely to the states.

45

Runoff Primary

Election held between top 2 candidates when neither received a legally required minimum percentage of the vote.

46

Saving amendment

Amendment to a bill proposed in hopes of softening opposition by weakening objectionable elements of a bill.

47

Select committee

Temporary committee of Congress, usually created to investigate certain issues.

48

Selective incorporation

Process by which the Supreme Court has selectively applied the 14th amendment to state law.

49

Senatorial courtesy

Tradition whereby candidates for the federal bureaucracy are appointed by the president and selected from a list of nominees submitted by senators.

50

Shield law

Law guaranteeing news reporters the right to protect anonymity of their sources. Many states have passed Shield Laws, but not the federal government.

51

Soft money

Political donations made to parties for the purpose of general party maintenance and support I.e.: get-out-the-vote campaigns, issue advocacy, and advertisements that promote the party but NOT INDIVIDUAL CANDIDATES. Soft money contributions to political parties were banned in 2002 by the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (BCRA)

52

Super PAC

Does not have donation limits, but cannot donate directly to a specific candidate.

53

Unanimous consent decree

Agreement passed by the Senate that establishes the rules under which a bill will be debated, amended, and voted upon.

54

Unwritten Constitution

Certain deeply ingrained aspects of our government that are not mentioned in the Constitution. I.e.: political parties, political conventions, cabinet meetings

55

Voting Rights Act of 1964

Federal Law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people from voting, and expanded government efforts to register voters.

56

War on Poverty

Programs of LBJ's Great Society that were specifically aimed at assisting the poor.

57

Warren Court (1953-1969)

Era in Supreme Court under Earl Warren who is best remembered for expanding the rights of minorities and the rights of the accused.

58

Writ of certiorari

Legal document issued by the Supreme Court to request the court transcripts of a case.

59

Writ of habeas corpus

Court order requiring an explanation as to why a prisoner is being held in custody

60

Federal Reserve Board

Executive agency largely responsible for monetary policy. Controls monetary supply.