W03_09 Motor Control 5: Basal Ganglia Flashcards Preview

Brain and Behaviour > W03_09 Motor Control 5: Basal Ganglia > Flashcards

Flashcards in W03_09 Motor Control 5: Basal Ganglia Deck (19):
1

what does "pyramidal" refer to?

upper motor neuron system

2

what does "extrapyramidal" refer to?

usually basal ganglia system

3

what receives input for the basal ganglia?

caudate and putamen.

4

which structure does the basal ganglia go through to connect to motor and association cortexes?

motor thalamus

5

what does the basal ganglia do?

role in motor planning (including social/physical consequences), motor initiation, and cognitive function

6

what does the output for the basal ganglia?

globus pallidus interna

7

collectively, the caudate + putamen is referred to as what?

striatum.

8

describe the direct pathway for loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia

reduced stimulation in striatum;
reduced inhibition of globus pallidus interna;
increased inhibition of motor thalamus;
reduced excitation of motor cortex

9

describe the indirect pathway for loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia

reduced inhibition in striatum;
increased inhibition of globus pallidus externa;
reduced inhibition of subthalamic nucleus;
increased excitation of globus pallidus interna;
increased inhibition of motor thalamus;
reduced excitation of motor cortex

10

loss of dopamine causes what?

reduced excitation of motor cortex. contributes to some of the symptoms of parkinson's.

11

name 6 classic signs of basal ganglia disease

-dystonia/dyskinesia
-athetosis
-chorea
-parkinsonism
-hemiballism
-tic syndrome

12

what is tardive dyskinesia?

lingual-bussal-facial dyskinesia caused by neuroleptics complications.

13

what is acute dystonic reaction?

arms/legs extended
opisthotonus
torticollis
protruding tongue
facial grimace

14

what is athetosis?

slow writhing movements of fingers and hands; sometimes legs and feet

15

what is hemiballismus?

involuntary, unilateral, large amplitude, flinging motions of the limbs. rotatory is typical.
caused by lesion in contralateral subthalamic nucleus.

16

pathology of huntington's?

atrophy of striatum and cortex

17

symptoms of huntington's?

choreoathetosis,
dementia

18

what's a tic disorder?

a repeated, suppressible action that feels better after it's been done

19

what's tourettes?

a severe tic disorder that involves vocal tics.
coprolalia and echolalia may be present.