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Flashcards in Warm Up And Cool Down Deck (10)
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The three stages of a warmup

  • first is the cardiovascular exercises such as jogging
  • The second is stretching/flexibility exercises. The type will depend on what kind of work you are carrying out (dynamic/static)
  • third is the movement patterns for example practising shooting in football

-stage one the cardiovascular stage

  • this stage helps to gradually raise the heart rate
  • examples include cycling on a static bicycle, skipping, swimming, jogging and walking
  • usually takes 10 to 15 minutes depending on the person on the activity
  • psychological preparation should also take place for the competitive situation

Stage two stretching

  • static stretching – when the stretch is held in a stationary position for 30 seconds or more
  • static stretching is while not moving and can be active or passive
  • Active static – perform and works on one joint, pushing it beyond its point of resistance, and lengthening the muscles and connective tissue surrounding it
  • passive static – a stretch occurs with the help of an external force, such as a partner, another body part or a wall

-Ballistic stretching – performing a stretch


Ballistic stretching -performing a stretch when swinging or bouncing movements further

  • should only be used by an individual who is dreamily flexible such as a gymnast or a dancer who will try to push their body be on the limits of their range of movement in comparison to a games player
  • The stress should be started slowly, sport specific and if painful, the stress should be stopped. The stretches should be balanced between agonists and antagonist

Stage three – skills specific practices phase


-The phase where you practice the skills of the activity such as… Sprint starts for 100 meter runner to get used to sprinting of the blocks, practice throws for a discus, shotput, hammer or javelin thrower. Take off practice runs for the pole vaulters, high jumpers, long and triple jumpers. Catching crosses and shots and throwing the ball back out for a goalkeeper in football


Physiological effects of a warmup

  • reduces the risk of injury by increasing the elasticity of the muscle tissue
  • release of adrenaline will increase heart rate- allows more oxygen to be supplied to the working muscles
  • an increase in the speed of nerve impulses allows us to be more alert which will improve reaction time
  • allows efficient movement of joints through an increased production of synovial fluid
  • it’s apprising adequate bloodflow to the heart to increase its efficiency

Call down phases

  • takes place at the end of an exercise. It consists of some form of light exercise to keep the heart rate elevated. This keeps bloodflow high and allows oxygen to be flushed through the muscles, removing any oxidising lactic acid that remains
  • too much lactic acid will cause your performance to deteriorate. performing The forming light exercises also allows the skeletal pump to keep working which maintains Venus return and prevents blood pooling in the veins. Blood pooling can lead to dizziness and occasionally a loss of consciousness
  • this is usually followed by some light stretching. These are usually held for a longer period of time than in the warmup – 30 to 35 seconds


  • A cool down limits this
  • this occurs 24 to 48 hours following heavy exercise
  • this muscle soreness may occur from the structural damage to muscle fibres and connecting tissue surrounding the fibres
  • usually occurs following excessive eccentric contractions when muscle fibres are put under a lot of strain. This mainly occurs in weight training

Define cool down


-takes place at the end of an exercise, it consist of some form of light exercise to keep the heart rate elevated


Physiological effects and benefits of a cool down


-keeps the skeletal muscle pump working
-maintain venous return
-prevents blood pooling into the vein
-limits the effects of DOMS
remove lactic acid
-reduces heart rate and body temperature