When was pre industrial Britain?
Pre industrial Britain was before 1780.
What are the key areas of focus?
>Two tier class systems >Rural environment affects >communications/technology/transport >widespread illiteracy >Harsh lifestyles
What was pre industrial Britain like?
- living conditions were miserable- overcrowding. This had a large impact of society
- workers of a lower class were paid low wages
- before the late 18th Century, most people worked as farmers
- people could barely afford living resources such as food and rent.
- eduction was limited for the lower class.
What was it like for people living in pre industrial Britain?
- class division clearly existed (lower and upper) based on feudal systems
- people lived in rural areas such as the countryside
- There was limited free time as work was based on the land- free time was dictated y the agricultural seasons.
- violent/cruel behaviour was the the norm for the lower class whereas the upper class often lived in luxury.
- communications and transport were limited.
- played in pre industrial Britain which very much reflected the characteristics of popular recreations and socio cultural Factors evident at the time.
- it was played by lower class society using natural resources. For example a pigs brain
- it was male dominant and extremely violent.
What are the 4c’s?
clear class systems/divisions
Define feudal system-
It was a way of structuring society around a relationship derived from the holding of land in exchange for service of labour.
Define popular recreations-
The sport and past times of people in pre industrial Britain.
There are a number of popular recreations which can be identified during pre industrial Times. Long hours of work meant that popular recreational activities were occasional. And special occasions like shrove Tuesday
Limited transport meant that popular recreational activities were local and specific to each community. For example games would be played at towns vs towns.
Meant that less people could take part. More wealthier people took part.
What was literacy like?
It was lower among the lower class in society so any rules were very basic and applied to a particular community. Example- no official rules.
It meant that all classes could take part, however meant there was a high number of injuries.
What were activities like?
- aggressive: a lot harsher, people had to stick up for themselves
- male dominated
- reflected a harsh society
- People barely cared meaning that there was lots of damage to properties
- a high number of injuries: even death
Because if the harsh society not many people wanted to take part.
How did seasonal time/working hours have an impact?
- not many people could participate due to long working hours
- games were played a few times a year due to harsh weather conditions and occupation.
Socio-cultural factors: two tier society/feudal system
The outcome of this was: •the gentry/upper class activities were clearly separate from from lower classes/ peasant activities.
>limited transport >illiteracy/uneducated >harsh society >seasonal time/working hours >pre industrial >two tier society/feudal system
- was also called ‘royal tennis’ or they sport of kings’
- was another activity played in ore industrial Britain. But it did not reflect the typical popular recreation characteristics of many activities of the time.
Who played real tennis?
- it was an exclusive activity mainly played by the upper-class
- Henry VIII had a court at Hampton Court
How was real tennis played?
- it was played in a high moral code, so no violence and was instead played in a civilised manner with opponents manually respectful of one another
- it was played with plenty of leisure time, that up a class were able to play row tennis on a regular basis in inexpensive purpose-built facilities using expensive equipment
Where was real tennis played?
- The upper-class could travel so it was non-local in nature
- The game was difficult holding technical demands and was very long.
It was a form of a competitive running and walking of the 17th and early 18th century
Who took part in foot racing and what was it like?
- Footman (I.e hired servants) competed as messengers of the upper-class for the speed of movement.
- it was a form of competitive running/walking involving feats of endurance
- foot racers would play against each other
What impact would success have for the upper-class and the performer?
-success in athletics meant increase social status for a ‘gentleman’ so the upper-class were very happy to act as patrons to the working-class performers.
What is a patron?
- member of the gentry who looked after the lower class performer
- for example by arranging competitions for them to participate in, putting up price money and generally looking after the welfare of the performer.
- early athletics in preindustrial Britain also took the form of a “festival occasion “with individuals organising rural community festivals containing athletic events. Including running, hurdles and football.
- prizes were awarded by the upper-class patrons for successful participants
Characteristics of popular recreational linked to pre-1780 festivals included…
- rules with simple/un written
- they occurred annually
- events were local with people from neighbouring villages joining in with festivals and competitions
- betting occurred, with wages placed on the outcome of races etc
- was set in a rural location
Why are popular recreation activities eventually band and 19th century?
- they were violent or unruly in nature
- they lead to injury or death in some extreme cases
- they lead to damage of property
- they involved gambling/wagering
- They were linked to alcohol consumption/drunken behaviour