National governing bodies and amateurism/professionalism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in National governing bodies and amateurism/professionalism Deck (25)
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Why was there a development of the national government bodies?

  • during the mid to late 19th century, lots of national government bodies began to develop in England for the following reasons…
    1. Sport was becoming increasingly popular with more widespread playing of sports teams
    2. More teams and clubs were being in formed
    3. Leagues and competitions were required for teams to compete in.
    4. More national and international fixtures
    5. Nationally agreed rules and codification
    6. Maintenance of the amateur ideal to deal with professionalism and early commercialisation of Sport and the desire to maintain control of sport among the middle/upper-class, exclusively via occupation, where the middle and upper classes were able to set rules of eligibility to exclude the working class


  • maintenance of control of sport among the middle and upper-class
  • threats of professionalism/commercialism
  • more clubs forming
  • rules and codification required
  • more leagues weren’t required
  • different public schools play different versions of sport – problems when boys moved on
  • more fixtures required
  • maintain amateur ideal

Define codification


-Action or process of arranging laws or rules according to a system or plan


Why did some of the NGBs try to prevent professionals from competing in their sport

  • due to desire of the upper-class/middle-class to maintain control of sport
  • to preserve amateur ideal in sport
  • to maintain exclusively – did not want to mix middle/upper class with the lower class
  • did not like losing to lower working class (professionals)

Amateurism Nd professionalism


Participation in sport overtime has been viewed as being played according to 2 very different codes. Firstly, there is the amateur code which stresses sport purely for the sake of it, secondly, there is the professional code which place is far more emphasis on winning


What is an amateur


A person who play sport for the love of it and receives no financial gain


What is a professional


-A person who play sport for financial gain


What are the characteristics of a gentleman amateur?

  • being a respected member of society with a public school background
  • belonging to the social alight, having wealth and plenty of free time in sport
  • participation in sport was viewed as a character building exercise
  • playing sports to a high moral code

What were the positive impacts of amateurism

  • elite sports was run and dominated by the upper-class and middle classes who had high status in sport and society. At the time amateurs held a higher status than professionals
  • code of amateurism: was based on playing sport to clearly set rules which were put in place by the middle and upper-class that formed many NGBS
  • belonging to the social elite : having wealth and plenty of time to play sport for the love of it rather than monetary gain
  • participation in sport: was seen as more important than winning and taking part was viewed as character building exercise. They played according to their God-given talents and training was frowned upon as this constituted professionalism
  • The ‘ all-rounder’ was viewed in high regard by the amateurs
  • amateurs were there early before most of the 19th century

•The new middle classes admires the cultural values of the upper-class gentlemen amateur


What are working-class professionals


As sports such as football became increasingly popular and the working classes had increased time and wages, the demand for spectator sports increased

  • working-class had lower status and could not afford to play sport
  • The working-class professionals came from poor backgrounds
  • they were perceived to be corruptible as they were controlled by money
  • early professionals in walking/running races were paid according to results
  • foul play and gamesmanship are used to try and gain an advantage and increase the chancing of winning

Comparison between upper/middle and lower classes


Gentleman amateur (rugby union)

  • Upper/middle-class
  • wealthy
  • lots of free time
  • no desire to improve performance
  • high morality

Working class professionals (rugby league)

  • lower class
  • Poor
  • very little free time
  • committed to train and perform as well as possible
  • Low morality

What are the positive impacts of the 19th-century professionalism on sports development?

  • as poorest members of society had to be paid a wage for time of working and representing their factories, broken time payments emerged
  • they were paid based on their results so performance developed as a result of training
  • earning money from sport was seen as a venue for ‘social mobility’
  • This created a determination to succeed ie higher awards at stake and the pressure to succeed to maintain a certain lifestyle

Key features of the early 20th century amateurs

  • at the start of the 20th century amateur maintain their performance in sport in number of ways for example their positions at the top of the national governing bodies
  • high status in sport and society
  • highly moral – they had sufficient income and leisure time to play sport for the love and receive no payment- emphasis on fair play
  • top performer-it was more than likely that top performers came from middle/upper-class

What is the modern day amateurs


-as the 20th century progressed, that amateurs began to lose some of their status and power in sport. Society slowly began to be based more on equality of opportunity, with achievements based more on merit and personal performance standards


What are the modern day of the late 20th/early 21st century amateurs

  • Performance at the top level in most sports is open to all
  • some amateurs receive finance to pay for training expenses
  • some high-level performers are still not professional
  • there has been a blurring of amateur and professional

What are the positives of modern day amateurism


-codes of amateurism are still evident in British sport the Via fair play/sportsmanship
-it is still viewed positively and promoted in a number of ways E.g. shaking hands at the end of the game
-Sports like rugby maintain their amateurism until late into the 20th century and still have codes based on such principles (calling a ref sir)


Characteristics of a modern day professional

  • all classes can compete: social class is no longer a barrier to success
  • people are now respected for their talents and efforts in reaching the top
  • there are high rewards for pros through media/sponsorship
  • celebrity status: many professionals are wealthy, materialism is highly valued by many in modern day society

The rationalisation and modern day development of association football

  • The gentleman amateur from the upper-class was so wealthy and could afford not to work and had a lot of free time to play sport. He enjoyed playing sport for the fun of it and did not train. He also played with sportsmanship at a high moral code and did not care about winning
  • professionals were generally from a poor background and therefore played for the desire to win and train hard to improve. They often worked long hours for poor pay. People often thought that professionals played for the love of money

In terms of industrialisation and postindustrialisation


Urbanisation – large numbers of people living in one place gave a large captive audience

More free time – less time working in the factories

Improve transport – fans were able to travel

Increased professionalism – Play professionally via broken work time payments. The FA recognised professionals in 1855 and was looked upon as a way of getting people out of the factory system

-social class links – middle-class influence and approval gave football more respectability (higher moral code and etiquette)

Increased organisation- highly structured, rules, leagues, teams (churches + factories), refs


20th century sport

  • first half of the 20th century: sport alongside the radio and cinema became available, part of commercialised mass entertainment industry
  • BBC began its live coverages of sport in 1927
  • football became Britain’s major sporting activity
  • in the 1900 the maximum wage was £4 a week
  • The key time period for professionalism in football was during the mid 20th century when maximum wage was abolished as the result of the strike from the PFA
  • more recently, in the late 20/21st century football has undergone a massive increase in commercialisation with far more media/TV coverage
  • salaries have increased massively with the boss man ruling giving players freedom of contract
  • transport is developing continuously
  • Technology developed e.g. Hawkeye/VAR

Define bossman ruling


A European court if justice made on the 15th of December 1995 concerning freedom of moe met for workers. An important decision as if allowed the freedom movement of labour in the EU. It effectively allowed footballers within the EU to move to another club at the end if their contract without a transfer being paid.


The emergence of elite female footballers in modern day sport


-in the UK, football has become increasingly available to women. A number of socio-cultural factors can be identified which have led to an increase in opportunities for women to participate and progress through the elite in modern sports


Equal opportunities


-mort sports are generally available and socially acceptable
-sex discrimination act has been passed, leading to less sexual discrimination in sport on the basis of gender
-The war effort from women also led to the breaking down myths and stereotypes about the physical capabilities of women


Why are more women participating in sport?

  • increased media coverage: BT sports provides live coverage of women’s super league
  • more clubs are formed: local/professional levels
  • increased participation- grass roots level as well as elite
  • more free time: traditional domestic responsibility role has decreased


  • as the 21st century progressed, women’s football has become increasingly prominent response
  • UEFA has set up competitions such as the women’s euro and the UEFA Champions League