- Specificity is important to make sure the training you do is relevant for your chosen activity/sport.
- You need to consider whether you are using the same energy system, muscle fibre type, skills and movements. The intensity and duration of the training should also be similar to your activity.
- For example, a centre midfield player might chose fartlek training to develop his cardiovascular fitness as this mimics the same speed pattern as a match.
- This is where the performer gradually trains harder throughout their training programme, as their body adapts.
- A performer who wishes to improve their power, for example, will be lifting heavier weights at the end of their training programme compared to the start.
- This is because the muscles will be overloaded every few weeks as the amount of weight lifted is increased. It is important to not overload too much too soon. Doing it more gradually will reduce the risk of injury.
How else could you progressively overload when doing weight training?
1) Increase the number of reps 2) increase the number of sets 3) decrease the recovery time in-between sets 4) increase the weight
-this is often referred to as detraining. If training stops, then the adaptations that have occurred as a result of the training programme deteriorate. This tends to happen when an athlete becomes injured, ill or has a break from their sport.
Rest days are needed to allow the body to recover from training. Research suggests that the 3:1 ration should be used, where the performer trains hard for three days and then rests for one.
Remember ‘SPORR’ for the principles of training: - S-pecificity P-rogression O-verload R-eversibility R-ecovery
-F stands for frequency, so you
need to increase the number of training sessions, increase the work period or number of sets, and decrease the number of rest periods
-I is for intensity, so to
improve you must train harder. To implement this you may use heart rate/BORG scale, one rep max to help
-T stands for the type of exercise. Using different forms of exercise
maintains motivation, but the type chosen needs to be relevant to your activity. For example, if an improvement in stamina is the aim of a training programme, there are a variety of different types of training that can be used to maintain motivation, such as continuous training, circuit training, and fartlek training. However, if you are a games player you need to make sure that these types of training involve running (as opposed to cycling), so that you are exercising your muscles in a similar way to how you use them in the game.
-I is the time spend training, so
this needs to gradually increase and rest periods need to decrease