Week 1 Flashcards Preview

BioChem > Week 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (52)
Loading flashcards...
1

Major Elements

Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen (make up 96% of matter in all living organisms)

2

Minor Elements

Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulfur, Sodium, Chlorine, Magnesium

3

Important Trace Elements

Iron, Zinc, Selenium

4

Oxygen

Body Mass 65%
Necessary for cellular energy (production of ATP); component of water

5

Carbon

Body Mass 18.5%
Primary component of anything organic (carbs, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids)

6

Hydrogen

Body Mass 9.5%
Important for pH balance in the body (pH = power of the hydrogen)
Component of water and organic molecules; necessary for energy transfer and respiration

7

Nitrogen

Body Mass 3.3%
Component of all proteins and nucleic acids (DNA & RNA). It's a waste product.

8

Calcium

Component of bones and teeth; required for muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting

9

Phosphorus

Main component of phospholipid bilayer; principal component in backbone of nucleic acids; important in energy transfer (part of ATP); component of bones

10

Potassium

Principal, positive ion within cells; important in nerve function

11

Sulfur

Important component of most proteins, stabilizes proteins.

12

Sodium

Important positive ion in extracellular fluid; important in nerve function

13

Chlorine

An important electrolyte. It's the most abundant negative ion in extracellular fluids

14

Magnesium

Component of many energy-transferring enzymes

15

Iron

Critical component of hemoglobin. We need iron to help carry oxygen through the blood.

16

Zinc

Important component of many enzymes and proteins

17

Selenium

Antioxidant

18

Centrioles

Divide the DNA

19

Nucleus

Manager of cell, it contains all the info

20

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of cell, this is where ATP is made

21

Ribosome

Site of protein synthesis (where proteins meet)

22

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Works closely with ribosomes, assembly line in plant

23

Golgi Apparatus

Shipping & Receiving (&modify) of protein that was just made; it can synthesize carbohydrates

24

Lysosome

Has hydrolytic enzymes; it's like a digestive system and known as the janitor in the cell; it breaks down whatever substance it engulfs

25

Autolysis

When a cell dies, lysosomes explode and eat it all up

26

Peroxisomes

Spa in the plant. Detoxifying free radicals. Need peroxisomes to stop oxidization.

27

Cell or Plasma membrane

55% protein, 25% phospholipid, 13% cholesterol, 4% misc. lipids and 3% carbohydrates.

28

Channel & Globular proteins

Both integral proteins, responsible for the membrane's special functions. Compact ones may be on cell's surface or inside the lipid bilayer.
Some form selective passageways, others create pores.

29

Meaning of integral proteins

Those within the cell/plasma membrane

30

Meaning of peripheral proteins

Those on the inside or outside of the cell/plasma membrane