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Flashcards in Week 7 Deck (75)
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1

What shape does DNA and RNA have?

A double helix (double staircase)

2

What makes a double helix?

Hydrogen bonds
- the bonds across two strands of DNA are hydrogen bonds

3

Name the four nucleotides

Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine, Guanine

4

What are base pairs?

Nucleotides bonding across the strands
Base pair = double helix = DNA

5

Adenine & Thymine

Base pair bonding across the strands with two hydrogen bonds

6

Cytosine & Guanine

Base pair bonding across the strands with three hydrogen bonds

7

What are the three subunits of a nucleotide?

Nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar (pentose) and a phosphate group

8

What's different in RNA?

There is no Thymine in RNA.
Adenine will bond with Uracil instead.

9

What is a phosphodiestrobond?

It is a bond with a phosphate group.
There is a phosphate group in between each sugar. Each nucleotide is bonded with this bond.

10

What are histones?

Little balls of protein the DNA winding around when it coils

11

What is a nucleosome?

A single strand of DNA winding around eight histone molecules forming a granule

12

What are genes?

A section of DNA that codes for a specific characteristic.
Whichever gene is exposed, is which protein will be made

13

DNA replication is also known as ...

DNA synthesis

14

What "unzips" the strands of DNA (helix)?

A special protein called Helicase enzyme

15

What is the beginning and end called where DNA separates?

The replication fork

16

What is the middle called where DNA separates?

The replication bubble

17

What does a nucleotide consist of?

Phosphate group, five-carbon sugar (pentose) and nitrogenous base

18

What will the base pairs do when exposed to DNA?

They will match up

19

What is a replisome?

It is the start point; it will put on an RNA primer; it is the "machine" to get DNA replication started

20

What is a replisome composed of?

A collection of proteins incl. two types of enzymes called Primase and Replicase

21

How long are RNA primers?

About 10 bases long

22

What replicates the DNA?

An enzyme called Polymerase III

23

Where does DNA replication start?

At 3 prime site

24

What's a lead strand?

First strand of DNA made continously

25

What's a lagging strand?

Is made in segments and subsequently joined together by an enzyme called DNA ligase.

26

DNA ligase

Enzyme that joins together the segments of the lagging strand

27

What kicks the primer off?

DNA polymerase I, it makes sure the DNA is replicated

28

What's intracellular fluid?

Fluid inside the cell

29

What's interstitial fluid?

Fluid inside tissue

30

Intra means...

inside