Flashcards in Week 7 Deck (75)
What shape does DNA and RNA have?
A double helix (double staircase)
What makes a double helix?
- the bonds across two strands of DNA are hydrogen bonds
Name the four nucleotides
Cytosine, Thymine, Adenine, Guanine
What are base pairs?
Nucleotides bonding across the strands
Base pair = double helix = DNA
Adenine & Thymine
Base pair bonding across the strands with two hydrogen bonds
Cytosine & Guanine
Base pair bonding across the strands with three hydrogen bonds
What are the three subunits of a nucleotide?
Nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar (pentose) and a phosphate group
What's different in RNA?
There is no Thymine in RNA.
Adenine will bond with Uracil instead.
What is a phosphodiestrobond?
It is a bond with a phosphate group.
There is a phosphate group in between each sugar. Each nucleotide is bonded with this bond.
What are histones?
Little balls of protein the DNA winding around when it coils
What is a nucleosome?
A single strand of DNA winding around eight histone molecules forming a granule
What are genes?
A section of DNA that codes for a specific characteristic.
Whichever gene is exposed, is which protein will be made
DNA replication is also known as ...
What "unzips" the strands of DNA (helix)?
A special protein called Helicase enzyme
What is the beginning and end called where DNA separates?
The replication fork
What is the middle called where DNA separates?
The replication bubble
What does a nucleotide consist of?
Phosphate group, five-carbon sugar (pentose) and nitrogenous base
What will the base pairs do when exposed to DNA?
They will match up
What is a replisome?
It is the start point; it will put on an RNA primer; it is the "machine" to get DNA replication started
What is a replisome composed of?
A collection of proteins incl. two types of enzymes called Primase and Replicase
How long are RNA primers?
About 10 bases long
What replicates the DNA?
An enzyme called Polymerase III
Where does DNA replication start?
At 3 prime site
What's a lead strand?
First strand of DNA made continously
What's a lagging strand?
Is made in segments and subsequently joined together by an enzyme called DNA ligase.
Enzyme that joins together the segments of the lagging strand
What kicks the primer off?
DNA polymerase I, it makes sure the DNA is replicated
What's intracellular fluid?
Fluid inside the cell
What's interstitial fluid?
Fluid inside tissue