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Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (43)
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1

Centrioles are ...

the duct tape of the cell

2

Centrioles come out of the basal bodies to outside of cell to form what?

Flagella & Cilia
Both are composed of nine pairs of microtubules that encircle a central pair of microtubules.

3

Centrioles coming out of basal bodies inside cell, are called ...

Spindle Fibers. This only happens during cell division.

4

Cilia

Quite a bit smaller than flagella, but structurally the same.
Cilia gets rid of "junk". (mucus, bacteria...)
Cilia on bacteria may aid in locomotion as well.
Cilia exists in upper respiratory tract as well as the oviduct for moving egg away from it.

5

Flagella

Generally occur singly and are significantly longer than cilia.
They are typically attached to individual cells and propel cell forward.

6

Cilia & flagella move how?

Power stroke and then recovery stroke

7

Cytoplasm

Everything but nucleus.
It is a heterogeneous mixture

8

Cytosol

Gel-like substance.
Amino acids, electrolytes, simple sugars will be used on demand, but are "dissolved" into cytosol.

9

Cytoskeleton

In order to change its shape, we need ATP.
Change happens during engulfing or expelling large particles/vesicles/liquids.
It consists of intermediate filaments, microtubules and microfilaments.

10

Microfilaments

Are located near cell surface on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane (inside the cell) and are arranged in bundles and meshworks.
They are composed of the CONTRACTILE PROTEIN ACTIN and, together with the MOTOR PROTEIN MYOSIN, play a key role in the cell's ability to change shape, break apart during cell division, and form outpouchings and involutions.

11

Intermediate Fibers

Toughest and most permanent element of cytoskeleton.
In epithelial cells (hair, skin and nails), for example, they are composed primarily of KERATIN and are known as tonofilaments or keratin filaments.
In nerve cells they are known as neurofilaments.

12

Mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell
All the structure inside is called the MATRIX.
Has an inner and outer membrane.
More surface area (cristae), more opportunity for chemical reaction.
Numerous biochemical reactions occur in the mitochondria, such as amino acid and fatty acid catabolism, respiratory electron transport, oxidative phosphorylation, and the oxidative reactions of the citric acid cycle, also known as the Kreb cycle.

13

Catabolism

Breaking down from complex to simple

14

Anabolism

Building up of substances in body (e.g. golgi apparatus when it makes carbohydrate chains)

15

Purpose of cell

Protein production

16

In order to have ATP...

...you need to have glucose stores.

17

In order to put phosphorus onto ATP, you need what?

Oxygen

18

Glycolysis

Catabolizing glucose

19

For glucose to enter the cell you need...

...Insulin binding to a cell receptor as the ligand

20

Glucose and O2 enter cell. Glucose enters mitochondria, out comes what?

ATP

21

Glycolysis in itself results in how many ATPs?

2

22

Glycolysis but no O2

2 ATPs from glycolysis
Anarobic
Results in 2 Pyruvic acid (PAP), ferments, results in lactic acid (which is what makes you sore)
Never gets to enter the mitochondria, stays in cytoplasm!

23

Glycolysis with O2

2 ATPs from glycolysis
Aerobic
Formation of Acytel CoA
Enters mitochondria!
Kreb cycle (citric acid cycle), results in another 2 ATPs
Followed by electron transport or oxidative phosphorylation (34 ATPs)
Total of 38 ATPs this way!

24

Oxidation steals what?

Electrons

25

Mitochondria has what else in it?

DNA and RNA. It can reproduce itself.

26

Where can you find a lot of peroxisomes?

Kidney and Liver

27

What is a chemical bond?

Atoms are sharing or transferring electrons between them.

28

Primary bonds

Covalent bonds
Ionic bonds
(weakest is the Hydrogen bond)

29

Covalent bonding

Overlapping of electron shells (equally or non-equally)
Sharing electrons
Covalently bonded substances are softer and have a low melting point
Water (H2O) is a covalent bond!

30

How many types of covalent bonds are there?

2 types: polar and non-polar