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Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (50)
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1

Ribosomes

- Site of protein synthesis (elves at the workbench)
- Made inside nucleolus inside the nucleus (called ribosomal RNA)
- free floating or attached
- Are in two subunits, utilizes the environment to make any protein

2

Endoplasmic reticulum

- Continuation of nuclear membrane

3

Rough ER

House for ribosomes
New proteins are moved into a reservoir, being modified before being moved into the Golgi apparatus

4

Smooth ER

- Stores or makes lipids (fatty acids), such as phospholipids or even steroids (diff. hormones)
- We can get some of our hormones in the smooth ER

5

Golgi apparatus

- Manufactures your sugar groups, polysaccrides
- Sugar may be added to your protein (glycoprotein in lipid bilayer, for example)
- Modifies proteins
- Packages them into vesicles ("suitcases") to be sent to where they need to go

6

Lysosomes

- take out/eat/digest the trash through engulfing it
- use enzymes for this process (hydrolytic enzymes)
Catabolism = hydrolysis = breaking down = decompose
- if needed, they will help outside of the cell

7

Peroxisomes

- Vesicle contained enzymes for detoxifying
- Found mostly in liver and kidneys
- Carry two major enzymes:
Peroxidase - take free radicals and turn them into hydrogen peroxide
Catalase - take hydrogen peroxide turning it into water
- Free radical are free roaming electrons such as sunlight, stress, smoking,...eat anti-oxidants (citrusfruit, Vitamin C)

8

Inclusions

- "suitcases" can bring things in and out of cell all the time

9

Centrioles

Small, hollow cylinders composed of microtubules
- found near the nuclear envelope in a region of the cell known as the cell center or centrosome
- help organize spindle fibers during cell division
- form the bases of cilia and flagella, known as their basal bodies

10

Nucleus

- CEO or brain
- all DNA in it
- carries info it was given to it
- contains all info needed to make over 2000
proteins
- every animal has a different number of chromosomes

11

Some cells are multi-nucleated, why?

Depends on the demand (such as muscle cells)

12

Anucleation

-red blood cells have no nucleus/are anucleated
-red blood cells do not reproduce
- survival rate of red blood cells 3-4 mos
- bone marrow produces new red blood cells

13

Nuclear envelope

- nucleus is filled with gel-like substance called the nucleoplasm
- envelope very porous, over 10% are nuclear pores
- space between the bilayers of the nuclear envelope is called the perinuclear cisternae

14

Mendel genetics

the 3 laws of genetics

15

Trade

- physical characteristic
- produced by heredity factors called genes

16

Gene

- gives you a trade
- segment of a chromosome
- we know the code of a specific trade

17

Locus

specific location of a gene on a chromosome

18

Allele

- is the opposite characteristic of the same gene (e.g. brown eyes dominant, but you may carry a blue eyed allele)
- if it is expressed (you can see it), then it's the dominant allele or both alleles are recessive
- recessive alleles will only express, when both are recessive

19

Genotypic/-type

- arrangement of alleles w/in chromosome

20

Phenotype

- physical appearance of the character trade or the physical appearance of the genotype

21

What are the three laws of Mendel genetics

1. Law of dominance
2. Law of segregation
3. Law of independent assortment

22

Law of dominance

- dominant genes always express phenotypically

23

Law of segregation

- individual alleles segregate randomly
- each allele on each chromosome on each gamate

24

Law of independent assortment

- two individual traits, such as hypercolor, segregate independently from each other

25

Homozygous

pure, the same e.g. TT

26

Heterozygous

mixed, not the same e.g. Tt

27

F1

Offspring

28

Homozygous dominant

e.g. TT

29

Homozygous recessive

e.g. tt

30

Heterozygous, dihybrid cross (VTNE question)

9:3:3:1