Week 6 Flashcards Preview

BioChem > Week 6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 6 Deck (61)
Loading flashcards...
1

Name the two categories of cells found in multicellular animals:

Reproductive cells (found in ovaries & testicles; divide via meiosis)
Somatic cells (all other cells in body; divide via mitosis)

2

Define IPMAT

Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase (PMAT is the mitotic phase)

3

What's the first phase?

Interphase (also known as the resting phase)
- during Interphase, DNA is unwound, so it can replicate

4

Interphase contains three phases, what are they?

G1 (Growth phase)
S (Synthesis)
G2 (Growth & final prep for division)

5

G1

Growth phase
- maturing, just divided; has a lot of metabolic activity; it's growing; can double in size

6

S

Synthesis
- replicates its DNA

7

G2

Growth and final prep for division
- brief; getting ready to divide (we need enzymes & proteins); centrioles are ready now/fully grown

8

Prophase

Nuclear envelope is breaking down
Now we can see our DNA as the chromatin coils and condenses to form barlike chromosomes.

9

Chromosome

Composed of two identical chromatids that are linked together in the middle, known as the centromere or kinetochore.

10

Metaphase

All chromosomes line up in what's called the metaphase plate. The centrioles have to polarize at opposite ends of the cell.

11

Anaphase

The chromatids are pulled apart.
Each chromatid becomes its own chromosome.
Shortest phase of mitosis.

12

Telophase

It's the final stage of mitosis.
Chromosomes begin to unravel, elongate, and return to diffuse into chromatin.
A nuclear envelope appears around each new set of chromosomes and nucleoli appear in each nucleus.
Ultimately, cell pinches itself in half; forming two completely separate daughter cells.
Cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division) marks the end of telophase. Now the daughter cells will enter interphase and the cycle starts all over.

13

Diploid numbers

A full set of chromosomes (interphase)

14

Chromatin

unwound DNA (threadlike)

15

Chromatid

identical sister in a chromosome

16

Reproduction goes through ...

all the same phases (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase)
Goes through two stages: Meiosis I & II

17

Prophase I

Most influental phase in Meiosis
Chromosomes set up in pairs, called a Tetrad.
When they set up in pairs like that, they touch in certain places and even CROSS OVER.
Crossing over = Synapsis

18

Metaphase I

Lining up of the pairs on the metaphase plate

19

Anaphase I

Pulling apart the tetrad

20

Telophase I

Cell splits in two with same number of chromosomes in each cell.
Now we move onto Meiosis II

21

Prophase II

The two cells are not identical as in Mitosis. They have exchanged genetic material.

22

Metaphase II

All chromosomes line up on metaphase plate in each cell.

23

Anaphase II

The chromosomes are now pulling apart (as they did in Mitosis' Anaphase)

24

Telophase II

The cells split in half, leaving us with four cells now, also known as gametes or sex cells.

25

What are macromolecules?

Long, complex molecules, often with repeating units.
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

26

Carbs can be ...

Simple or complex sugars
They are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Hydrated carbon or water-containing carbon

27

Glucose is ...

A monosacchride (one sugar)
It has six carbon atoms and is known as a hexose sugar

28

What are dissachrides?

Two sugars (table sugar is a dissacchride or sucrose

29

What three elements are found in all carbs?

Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen

30

Glucose is a hexose sugar, give another example?

Fructose (comes from fruit, converted to glucose in the body)