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Flashcards in Week 9 Deck (62)
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1

Name the three RNAs

Messenger
Transfer
Ribosomal

2

Name the two processes in protein synthesis

Transcription
Translation

3

Define Transcription

Copy of blueprint of DNA
Cope of just one gene

4

Define Translation

Taking the message and making it into protein

5

Genetic code

No two genetic codes are alike
We need to get the message for each one, where it starts and ends

6

Name two examples of codons

TAC
ATT

7

Define codons

Codons will code for a specific amino acid
Codons are three nucleotides long
We need to have at least 20 codons (=20 amino acids)

8

What do you call the start codon?

Promoter

9

What do you call the end codon?

Terminator

10

What enzyme opens up DNA for transcription?

RNA polymerase

11

What's mRNA?

Messenger RNA

12

Example of Transcription

DNA ATCGTCTGA
mRNA UAGCAGACU

13

What are introns?

Nonsense triplets, they are cut out (we don't use, except for reading your DNA in genetic testing)

14

What are exons?

Informational triplets (edited version)

15

When do we have a message?

After cutting out the introns we have a message

16

What happens after transcription?

DNA closes back up, the mRNA strand leaves the nuclear membrane and meets up w/either a free-floating ribosome or one attached to the rough ER

17

What's the function of ribosomes?

They act as translation stations

18

What do transfer RNAs carry?

Amino acids & the anticodon

19

Define anticodon

A sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.

20

What is translation?

mRNA is read with an anticodon that is on a tRNA the corresponding amino acid will bond to the polypeptide chain. (See box 3-3 on pg.83)

21

Gene expression can be ...

...turned on and off.

22

Not all cells will express ...

... all genes.

23

What do cells in the pancreas produce?

Insulin

24

What do cells in muscles produce?

Actin and Myosin

25

What is it called when plants know to stop growing?

Inhibition

26

Define synapse

The space between two neurons

27

Define neurotransmitters

Transmitting messages across the synapse (space)

28

Define synaptic transmission

Transmission of nerve impulses; nerve releases chemical stimulus to next neuron

29

Pre-synaptic neuron

Where the impulse comes from

30

Post-synaptic neuron

Where the impulse goes to