Week 11 - Neuropsychological Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 11 - Neuropsychological Assessment Deck (79):
1

Which of the following is the most commonly used battery for assessing memory?

Weschler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition

2

Slowing in speed in information processing is usually associated with

closed head injury

3

What is not a strength of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition?

it does not measure all types of memory

4

Most neuropsychological tests of memory and learning are involved in the assssment of

episodic memory

5

_____ stroke is more common and it is associated with _____

ischemic; blood clot

6

What is not a step of neuropsychological assessment?

neuroimaging

7

Amyloid plaques are usually found in the brain of patients with

Alzheimer's disease

8

What functions are commonly assessed by a clinical neuropsychologist?

attention
language
memory
NOT reflex

9

Which parts of the brain is associated with memory function?

temporal
hippocampus
frontal

10

The brain is made up of neurons and glia. The main function of glia is

holding neurons together

11

Executive function is not a unitary construct and is considered to comprise

concept formation, planning and problem solving

12

What is a fixed neuropsychlogical battery?

Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery

13

The main symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are

memory and learning difficulties, disorientation and problems with abstract thinking

14

The three main types of neurons are

sensory neuron, motor neuron and interneuron

15

What is the average weight of the human brain?

1500 grams and 1.4L in volume

16

What are the functions of the highly wrinkled structures of the cerebellum?

motor learning, coordination of complex motor movement, and coordination of some mental processes

17

What is the brain stem made up of?

medulla oblongata, pons and the reticular formation

18

What is the medulla oblongata involved in?

vital functions - breathing swallowing etc.

19

What is the pons involved in?

functions i.e. eye movements and balance

20

What is the reticular formation involved in?

regulation of sleep-wake cycles and in maintaining arousal

21

What does the cortex mainly consist of?

nerve cell bodies or grey matter

22

What are the functions of the occipital lobe?

register, process and interpret visual stimuli

23

What are the functions of the frontal lobe?

initiate, plan and produce motor behaviours. It is also involved in executive functions

24

What are the functions of the parietal lobe?

register, process and interpret somatosensory stimuli and control visual actions

25

What are the functions of the temporal lobe?

register, process and interpret auditory stimuli, memory and learning, regulation of emotional behaviour and identification of visual objects

26

What is the basal ganglia involved in?

controlling and coordinating voluntary motor movement

27

What is the limbic system involved in?

memory, motivation and regulation of human emotion

28

Who was the first person to formally use the term neuropsychology?

Donald Hebb

29

What does experimental neuropsychology aim to understand?

the behavioural organisation of the human brain by studying normal individuals in the laboratory

30

What does comparative neuropsychology aim to understand?

the behavioural organisation of the human brain by studying animals in the laboratory

31

What do cognitive neuropsychology and clinical neuropsychologists have an interest in?

brain injury - the clinical neuropsychologists specialises in their assessment and treatment

32

What are the two types of traumatic brain injury?

open - caused by fast-moving projectiles
closed - caused by the impact of blunt external forces or by the sudden acceleration/deceleration of the moving brain

33

How is the severity of closed head injury assessed?

by using the Glasgow Coma Scale or the duration of Post-Traumatic Amnesia

34

What are common symptoms of closed head injury?

slowing in speed of information processing, attentional and memory problems, personality change, impulsivity, emotional and speech problems

35

What are the initial symptoms of a stroke?

numbness, weakness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg or body, loss of speech, blurred or decreased vision, dizziness or loss of balance, headache and confusion

36

What are the two main types of stroke?

ischaemic and haemorrhagic

37

When does an ischaemic stroke occur?

blood clots or other particles block one of the arteries that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the brain and leads to death of brain cells - about 80% of all strokes are ischaemic in nature

38

When does a haemorrhagic stroke occur?

occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures because of hypertension or weak spots in the blood vessel walls called aneurysms

39

What is a brain tumor?

an abnormal growth of cells in the brain

40

What are the two main types of brain tumor?

primary and secondary

41

What is a primary brain tumor?

they originate in the cells of the brain and they can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous)

42

What are secondary brain tumors?

they are metastases (migrating cancer cells) that originate from other parts of the body

43

What is epilepsy?

a condition in which a person suffers from a seizure or temporary disruption of brain function due to periodic disturbance from the brain's electrical activity

44

What are symotomatic epileptic seizures?

the cause of the seizure can be identified

45

What are idiopathic epileptic seizures?

the cause of the seizure is spontaneous and cannot be traced

46

What are focal seizures?

those that originate in a specific area of the brain and then spread to other parts

47

What are the symptoms of epilepsy?

disruption of sensory function, loss of consciousness and motor problems

48

What is meningitis?

a general term that describes the infection of the meninges

49

What is encephalitis?

the inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus

50

What are the five steps in a neuropsychological assessment?

1. interviewing
2. gathering other relevant information
3. neuropsychological testing
4. interpreting test results and integrating information
5. report writing and providing feedback

51

What is the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsyhological Battery?

it is a fixed battery that aims to provide a comprehensive measurement of neuropsychological functions

52

What are the subtests of the HRNB?

category test
tactual performance test
speech sounds perception test
seashore rhythm test
finger tapping test
trail making test
aphasia screening test
sensory-perceptual examination

53

What are sensory functions?

they comprise the ability to encode and perceive sensory stimuli in the visual, auditory and somatosensory domains reliably and accurately

54

What can be used to assess sensory functions?

the sensory-perceptual examination from the HRNB

55

How many components are there of attention?

attention span, focused attention and selective attention

56

What is commonly used to assess attention span?

The Digit Span of the Weschsler Intelligence Scale

57

What type of brain injury are sensitive to performance on the Digits Backward subtest?

right frontal-lobe injuries

58

What are commonly used to assess focused attention?

the Trial Making Test and the Digit Symbol subtest from the WAIS

59

What are the two types of memory?

declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit)

60

What does semantic memory represent?

a person's knowledge of the world

61

What does episodic memory represent?

the memory of personal events

62

What is the most commonly used battery for memory and learning?

the Wechsler Memory Scale

63

How many subtests does the WMS-IV comprise of?

six subtests and an optional Brief Cognitive Screen

64

What are the subtests of the WMS-IV?

logical memory
verbal paired associates
designs I and II
visual reproduction
spatial addition
symbol span
brief cognitive status

65

What batteries are commonly used to assess verbal and visual memory?

the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)
the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test

66

What has the RAVLT been found to be sensitive to?

verbal memory deficits in those with Alzheimer's disease or those with closed head injury

67

Who was the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) developed by and what does it do?

Wilson and her colleagues as a psychometric test of prospective memory

68

Where is the function of language mediated?

by the left cerebral hemisphere

69

What are two comprehensive language assessment batteries?

The Western Aphasia Battery- Revised
Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination

70

Where is visuo-spatial function mediated?

the right cerebral hemisphere

71

What is the Hooper Visual Organisation Test?

a specific test of visuo-spatial functions

72

What test is used to assess a person's spatial awareness ability?

the Standardised Road-Map Test of Direction Sense

73

How are executive functions mediated?

By the prefrontal cortex

74

What are considered to be executive functions?

working memory, concept formation, problem solving and planning

75

What battery is used to assess executive functions?

the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)

76

How many subtests are in the D-KEFS and what are they?

nine
1. trial making test
2. verbal fluency
3. design fluency
4. colour-wword interference test
5. sorting test
6. twenty quetions test
7. tower test
8. proverb test
9. word context test

77

What is commonly used to assess motor strength?

the hand dynamometer

78

What is used to measure motor speed?

Finger Tapping Test of the HRNB

79

What is used to measure motor dexterity?

the Purdue Pegboard