Flashcards in Week 11 - Neuropsychological Assessment Deck (79):
Which of the following is the most commonly used battery for assessing memory?
Weschler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition
Slowing in speed in information processing is usually associated with
closed head injury
What is not a strength of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Fourth Edition?
it does not measure all types of memory
Most neuropsychological tests of memory and learning are involved in the assssment of
_____ stroke is more common and it is associated with _____
ischemic; blood clot
What is not a step of neuropsychological assessment?
Amyloid plaques are usually found in the brain of patients with
What functions are commonly assessed by a clinical neuropsychologist?
Which parts of the brain is associated with memory function?
The brain is made up of neurons and glia. The main function of glia is
holding neurons together
Executive function is not a unitary construct and is considered to comprise
concept formation, planning and problem solving
What is a fixed neuropsychlogical battery?
Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery
The main symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are
memory and learning difficulties, disorientation and problems with abstract thinking
The three main types of neurons are
sensory neuron, motor neuron and interneuron
What is the average weight of the human brain?
1500 grams and 1.4L in volume
What are the functions of the highly wrinkled structures of the cerebellum?
motor learning, coordination of complex motor movement, and coordination of some mental processes
What is the brain stem made up of?
medulla oblongata, pons and the reticular formation
What is the medulla oblongata involved in?
vital functions - breathing swallowing etc.
What is the pons involved in?
functions i.e. eye movements and balance
What is the reticular formation involved in?
regulation of sleep-wake cycles and in maintaining arousal
What does the cortex mainly consist of?
nerve cell bodies or grey matter
What are the functions of the occipital lobe?
register, process and interpret visual stimuli
What are the functions of the frontal lobe?
initiate, plan and produce motor behaviours. It is also involved in executive functions
What are the functions of the parietal lobe?
register, process and interpret somatosensory stimuli and control visual actions
What are the functions of the temporal lobe?
register, process and interpret auditory stimuli, memory and learning, regulation of emotional behaviour and identification of visual objects
What is the basal ganglia involved in?
controlling and coordinating voluntary motor movement
What is the limbic system involved in?
memory, motivation and regulation of human emotion
Who was the first person to formally use the term neuropsychology?
What does experimental neuropsychology aim to understand?
the behavioural organisation of the human brain by studying normal individuals in the laboratory
What does comparative neuropsychology aim to understand?
the behavioural organisation of the human brain by studying animals in the laboratory
What do cognitive neuropsychology and clinical neuropsychologists have an interest in?
brain injury - the clinical neuropsychologists specialises in their assessment and treatment
What are the two types of traumatic brain injury?
open - caused by fast-moving projectiles
closed - caused by the impact of blunt external forces or by the sudden acceleration/deceleration of the moving brain
How is the severity of closed head injury assessed?
by using the Glasgow Coma Scale or the duration of Post-Traumatic Amnesia
What are common symptoms of closed head injury?
slowing in speed of information processing, attentional and memory problems, personality change, impulsivity, emotional and speech problems
What are the initial symptoms of a stroke?
numbness, weakness or paralysis of the face, arm or leg or body, loss of speech, blurred or decreased vision, dizziness or loss of balance, headache and confusion
What are the two main types of stroke?
ischaemic and haemorrhagic
When does an ischaemic stroke occur?
blood clots or other particles block one of the arteries that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the brain and leads to death of brain cells - about 80% of all strokes are ischaemic in nature
When does a haemorrhagic stroke occur?
occurs when a blood vessel in the brain leaks or ruptures because of hypertension or weak spots in the blood vessel walls called aneurysms
What is a brain tumor?
an abnormal growth of cells in the brain
What are the two main types of brain tumor?
primary and secondary
What is a primary brain tumor?
they originate in the cells of the brain and they can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous)
What are secondary brain tumors?
they are metastases (migrating cancer cells) that originate from other parts of the body
What is epilepsy?
a condition in which a person suffers from a seizure or temporary disruption of brain function due to periodic disturbance from the brain's electrical activity
What are symotomatic epileptic seizures?
the cause of the seizure can be identified
What are idiopathic epileptic seizures?
the cause of the seizure is spontaneous and cannot be traced
What are focal seizures?
those that originate in a specific area of the brain and then spread to other parts
What are the symptoms of epilepsy?
disruption of sensory function, loss of consciousness and motor problems
What is meningitis?
a general term that describes the infection of the meninges
What is encephalitis?
the inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus
What are the five steps in a neuropsychological assessment?
2. gathering other relevant information
3. neuropsychological testing
4. interpreting test results and integrating information
5. report writing and providing feedback
What is the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsyhological Battery?
it is a fixed battery that aims to provide a comprehensive measurement of neuropsychological functions
What are the subtests of the HRNB?
tactual performance test
speech sounds perception test
seashore rhythm test
finger tapping test
trail making test
aphasia screening test
What are sensory functions?
they comprise the ability to encode and perceive sensory stimuli in the visual, auditory and somatosensory domains reliably and accurately
What can be used to assess sensory functions?
the sensory-perceptual examination from the HRNB
How many components are there of attention?
attention span, focused attention and selective attention
What is commonly used to assess attention span?
The Digit Span of the Weschsler Intelligence Scale
What type of brain injury are sensitive to performance on the Digits Backward subtest?
right frontal-lobe injuries
What are commonly used to assess focused attention?
the Trial Making Test and the Digit Symbol subtest from the WAIS
What are the two types of memory?
declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit)
What does semantic memory represent?
a person's knowledge of the world
What does episodic memory represent?
the memory of personal events
What is the most commonly used battery for memory and learning?
the Wechsler Memory Scale
How many subtests does the WMS-IV comprise of?
six subtests and an optional Brief Cognitive Screen
What are the subtests of the WMS-IV?
verbal paired associates
designs I and II
brief cognitive status
What batteries are commonly used to assess verbal and visual memory?
the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT)
the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test
What has the RAVLT been found to be sensitive to?
verbal memory deficits in those with Alzheimer's disease or those with closed head injury
Who was the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) developed by and what does it do?
Wilson and her colleagues as a psychometric test of prospective memory
Where is the function of language mediated?
by the left cerebral hemisphere
What are two comprehensive language assessment batteries?
The Western Aphasia Battery- Revised
Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination
Where is visuo-spatial function mediated?
the right cerebral hemisphere
What is the Hooper Visual Organisation Test?
a specific test of visuo-spatial functions
What test is used to assess a person's spatial awareness ability?
the Standardised Road-Map Test of Direction Sense
How are executive functions mediated?
By the prefrontal cortex
What are considered to be executive functions?
working memory, concept formation, problem solving and planning
What battery is used to assess executive functions?
the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS)
How many subtests are in the D-KEFS and what are they?
1. trial making test
2. verbal fluency
3. design fluency
4. colour-wword interference test
5. sorting test
6. twenty quetions test
7. tower test
8. proverb test
9. word context test
What is commonly used to assess motor strength?
the hand dynamometer
What is used to measure motor speed?
Finger Tapping Test of the HRNB