Week 4/5 - Cognitive Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 4/5 - Cognitive Assessment Deck (75):

Who proposed that intelligence comprised about seven 'primary mental abilities'

Louis Thurstone


David Wechsler's formula for computing IQ scores was

IQ = test score standing in distribution of same-aged peers


Binet and Simon revised their scale in 1908 and included this important innovation

They introduced the concept of mental level


The most recent (2008) version of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale generates scores for

Global IQ + four indices (verbal comprehension, working memory, perceptual reasoning and processing speed)


According to your text book, _________ was the first to propose a hierarchical model of intelligence

Phillip Vernon


Which of the following do not form a part of Robert Sternberg's 'triarchic theory of intelligence'

Social intelligence


Which is not considered a 'psychometric' theory of intelligence?

Gardner's multiple intelligences model


Early phrenologists assessed intelligence by

'Reading' the contours of the skull


Raymond Cattell's two-factor theory of intelligence comprised

Fluid intelligence plus crystallised intelligence


The 'cross' in cross-battery assessment meant to

Use more than one intelligence battery


The following definition is of which CHC broad ability (stratum II)
The use of deliberate and controlled mental operations to solve novel problems that cannot be performed automatically

Fluid reasoning (Gf)


In his book Human Cognitive Abilities: A survey of factor-analytic studies, Carroll reported the results of his systematic analysis of over ________ carefully selected human cognitive abilities datasets



Newer editions of intelligence test batteries tend to measure

More CHC abilities then before


Which type of psychologists have long adopted the practice of using more than one standardised test to measure a broader range of brain functions than that offered by a single assessment?



The following definition is of which CHC broad ability (stratum II)
The ability to analyse, manipulate, comprehend and synthesis sound elements, groups of sounds, or sound patterns

Auditory processing (Ga)


Which of course e WISC-IV indexes is considered to have construct-irrelevant variance?

Perceptual reasoning index (PRI)


Carroll's work built on the research of numerous previous "giants" in the field of intelligence. Who were these?

1. Thurstone
2. Cattell's
3. Spearman


The following definition is of which CHC broad ability (stratum II)
The ability to automatically and fluently perform relatively easy or over-learned cognitive tasks, especially when attention and concentration is required

Processing speed (Gs)


The CHC model rests on the shoulders of numerous _________ Giants



The early Wechsler tests comprised

Roughly equal proportions of verbal and performance tests


What are implicit theories of intelligence?

They reflect personal definitions and assumptions about how intelligence is structured, it's component parts, and the processes underlying intelligence, and how it develops and changes


What are explicit theories of intelligence?

These theories are constructed by psychologists and other social scientists, and are based in empirical research that tests hypotheses about the nature of intelligence


What is global intelligence?

The overall or summary ability of an individual, which might be represented as the Full IQ in modern intelligence tests; in hierarchical models of intelligence, global intelligence (g) sits at the top


Who proposed psychometric g?

Spearman - he suggested that intelligence could be represented by a general, underlying mental ability factor - g


What is the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale?

A revision of Binet's test that used the intelligence quotient concept which was based on the ratio between mental age and chronological age


What was the Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale used to initially assess?

Adult psychiatric patients


What are deviation IQ scores based on?

The assumption that intelligence is normally distributed in a population


What were the early Binet scales criticised for?

Their over-reliance on items that assessed language and verbal skills


What four indices replaced the verbal and performance indices of the WAIS-IV and the WISC-IV?

Verbal comprehension
Working memory
Perceptual reasoning
Processing speed


What theory of intelligence did Thurstone propose?

Multi factor


What are Thurstones primary mental abilities?

Verbal comprehension
Perceptual speed
Numerical ability
Word fluency
Associative memory
Spatial visualisation


What theory of intelligence did Guilford propose?

The structure-of-intellect (SOI) model


What 3 dimensions of intelligence did Guilford propose in his SOI model of intelligence?

Operations - the type of mental processing required to complete a task
Content - the type of stimuli to be manipulated
Product - the type of information that is manipulated and stored


What model of intelligence did Vernon propose?

The hierarchical model of intelligence


What theory of intelligence was proposed by Cattell?

The two-factor (Gf-Gc) theory of intelligence


What are the two factors of intelligence in Cattell's theory?

Fluid intelligence - the nonverbal, relatively culture-free, basic mental capacity of the individual
Crystallised intelligence - dependent on learning. The culture-specific fund of knowledge, skills and information that is accumulated through life's experiences and education


What do culture-fair tests of intelligence typically incorporate?

Few verbal instructions and tap intelligence using images and visuo-spatial puzzles


What is the CHC theory of intelligence?

The Cattell-Horn-Carrol model; a merging of the Cattell and Horn Gf-Gc theory and Carrolls three stratum theory, which proposes three levels or strata of abilities: narrow, broad and general


What are the broad (stratum II) abilities in the CHC model?

Quantitative knowledge
Reading and writing
Comp- knowledge
Fluid reasoning
Short term memory
Long term storage and retrieval
Visual processing
Auditory processing
Processing speed
Domain specific knowledge
Reaction and decision speed
Psychomotor speed
Olfactory abilities
Tactile abilities
Kinaesthetic abilities
Psychomotor abilities


What CHC broad abilities are assessed by the WAIS-IV?

Crystallised knowledge - verbal comprehension
Visual processing and fluid intelligence - Perceptual reasoning
Short term memory - working memory
Cognitive speed - processing speed


What do psychometric theories seek to explain?

The structure of intelligence by understanding the relationships among individual tests


What is Piaget's view of intelligence synonymous with?

Adaptation to the environment


What four stages did Piaget define?

Sensorimotor; birth-2
Pre operational; 2-6
Concrete operational; 7-12
Formal operations; 12+


What does the planning, attention-arousal, simultaneous and successive (PASS) cognitive processing theory propose?

That there are four main cognitive processing units which have biological counterparts in cortical structures


What are the four PASS cognitive processing units?

Planning - executive functioning
Attention-arousal - maintaining sustained attention and focus
Simultaneous processing - integrating different stimuli into a coherent whole
Successive processing - dealing with information that is sequential


What theory was proposed by Gardner?

Multiple intelligences - intelligence comprises multiple, discrete modalities that are not aggregated to 'g'


What five other intelligences were proposed by Gardner?



What theory of intelligence was proposed by Sternberg?

Triarchic theory of intelligence - where intelligence is reflected in 3 main cognitive processes; componential processes, experiential processes and contextual processes


What are componential processes?

Analytical processes, higher-order, executive functions, learning processes and abilities needed to perform tasks


What are experiential processes?

Processes associated with creative intelligence, new ideas and innovation


What are contextual processes?

Practical intelligence - abilities associated with adapting, shaping and selecting ones environment


An information-processing view of intelligence

is conceptualised in terms of how material is processed by the brain


What are the qualities of an implicit theory of intelligence

they are affected by culture, they are known as lay theories and they are affected by experience


What were a part of Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence?

social, practical and analytical intelligence


Gardner's multiple intelligence's are best represented by

presenting all individual intelligence's as a profile


The application of fluid intelligence enhances one's _____ intelligence



Where has the adoption of CHC theory occurred more?

In professional fields compared to theoretical fields


Psychologists should follow the guiding principles of the cross-battery assessment approach because

it ensures assessment procedures are theoretically and psychometrically sound


Which of the WISC-IV indexes is considered to have construct-irrelevant variance?

Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)


CHC theory and cross-battery assessment has been most influential in understanding what?

why some people find reading, writing and mathematics difficult


There are ____ guiding principles to the cross-battery assessment method



The ability to automatically and fluently perform relatively easy or over-learned cognitive tasks, especially when attention and concentration is require. What CHC broad ability is this?

Processing speed (Gs)


A person's breadth and depth of acquired knowledge of the language, information and concepts of a specific culture, and/or the application of this knowledge. What CHC broad ability is this?

Comprehension-knowledge (Gc)


What was the first successful intelligence test?

Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale


What is construct-irrelevant variance?

it is present when an assessment is too broad, containing excess reliable variance associated with other distinct constructs ... that affects responses in a manner irrelevant to the interpreted constructs


What is construct underrepresentation?

it is present when an assessment is too narrow and fails to include important dimensions or facets of the construct


What is crystallised intelligence/comprehension-knowledge? (Gc)

the knowledge of the culture that is incorporated by individuals through a process of acculturation - breadth of acquired knowledge of the language, information and concepts of a specific culture and/or application of the knowledge


What is short-term memory (Gsm)?

the ability to apprehend and maintain awareness of a limited number of elements of information in the immediate situation


What is visual processing (Gv)?

The ability to generate, store, retrieve, and transform visual images and sensations


What is auditory processing (Ga)?

abilities that depend on sound as input and on the functioning of our hearing apparatus


What is long-term storage and retrieval (Glr)?

The ability to store and consolidate new information in long-term memory and later fluently retrieve the stored information through association


What is processing speed (Gs)?

the ability to automatically and fluently perform relatively easy or over-learned elementary cognitive tasks, especially when high mental efficiency is required


What are the steps in the cross battery approach?

1. select a battery that best addresses referral concern
2. use clusters based on actual norms when possible
3. select tests classified through an acceptable method
4. when broad ability is underrepresented, obtain from another battery
5. use batteries that have been developed and normed within a few years
6. use as few intelligence batteries as possible
7. establish ecological validity for deficits


What are the benefits of XBA?

time efficient method
allows a wider range of cogntiive abilites to be assessed
consistent approach in line with contemporary research
allows more targeted assessment according to referral concern
interpretation guidance based on validity/reliability


What are the criticisms of XBA?

not always practical
tests are expensive
only some subtests are administered
tests may have been normed at different times
different subtests with same names measure different tasks
there are no norms for the cross-battery mean
it relies mainly on subtest analysis