Week 6/7 - Personality Assessment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 6/7 - Personality Assessment Deck (70):
1

What were the five basic paradigms in personality assessment that Wiggins proposed?

Psychoanalytic
Interpersonal
Personological
Multivariate (trait)
Empirical approach

2

What other 2 approaches to personality are there that Wiggins did not propose?

Social-cognitive
Positive psychology

3

What type of technique is the Rorschach?

Projective

4

The concept of personality is the observers way of attempting to ______________

Capture what is happening when two people interact

5

What did the pioneering work of Timothy Leary lead to?

The interpersonal circumplex, a way of describing interpersonal behaviour in terms of a circle of relationships

6

What dimensions of the interpersonal circumplex have received reasonable consensus?

Dominance-submission (seeking control) and warm-cold (seeking belongingness)

7

What technique did Murray and Morgan develop?

The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) - By using a set of ambiguous pictures that were depictions of people and places and allowed for more than one interpretation

8

What did Murray look for when examining the life history?

Proceedings - significant events
Themes - ideas that recur in the life of the person and help to give it some structure or coherence

9

What did Wiggins propose?

That there were five basic paradigms in personality assessment

10

What were the four temperament types described in earlier times?

Melancholic
Phlegmatic
Choleric
Sanguine

11

Who was the first to formulate a trait theory of personality?

Allport, although he saw certain traits as unique to individuals rather than being common to all

12

What three major dimensions of personality did Eysenck label using factor analysis?

Neuroticism
Psychoticism
Extraversion

13

What are the Big Five personality factors argued by Costa and McCrae?

Neuroticism
Extraversion
Openness
Agreeableness
Conscientiousness

14

How is assessment of personality using the trait approach most commonly done?

Using the personality questionnaire

15

What is the main difference between the empirical approach and the trait approach?

The trait approach is concerned principally with the dimensions that make for human individuality; whereas the empirical approach is concerned with personality description in the service of predicting socially relevant criteria (I.e mental illness, criminality)

16

Humanistic psychology

was the forerunner of the positive psychology movement
sought to define what made people truly human and focused heavily on the self as a major construct

17

The Rasch model models

the difference between the person's standing on a trait and item difficulty

18

Self-efficacy involves

beliefs about performance

19

A 2PL model estimates

item difficulty and item discrimination

20

The idea of an assessment centre

was first implemented at the American Telephone and Telegraph Company after the Second World War

21

Self-efficacy is important in determining what 3 things?

the effort in sustaining behaviour
the decision about what to terminate a behaviour
the choice of actions to perform

22

The Likert scale

asks the respondent to rate their strength of endorsement on a seven-point scale

23

basic reference dimensions of socially important behaviour include

dominance-submission

24

Typologies differ from dimensional descriptions in

relying on a set of categories that exhaust all differences among individuals

25

IRT models are now used in constructing ability tests because they

can provide interval level measurement
facilitate tailored testing
provide tests of differential validity

26

Who created the most widely used system for scoring the Rorschach Inkblot test?

Exner

27

The projective hypothesis holds that

an individual supplies structure to unstructured stimuli

28

The scenes in the cards from the Thermatic Apperception Test are designed to present the testtaker with

classical human situations

29

When scoring the Rorschach inkblot test, Popularity refers to

the frequency with which a certain response has been found to correspond with a particular inkblot or section of an inkblot

30

Assessing PD using structured interviews is problematic because

pathology can be concealed
it is tedious
it is time-consuming

31

Objective personality tests can be

answered quickly, scored by a computer and scored by hand

32

Exner's system for scoring the Rorschach enabled which type of reliability to be calculated

inter-scorer

33

When scoring the Rorschach inkblot test, Content refers to

The content category of the response (such as human figures, animal figures, clouds)

34

Dissimulation by individuals with a personality disorder can be both conscious and unconscious. True or False?

True

35

The empirical approach to personality description is

solely interested in the prediction of socially significant outcomes

36

It is advisable to draw up a plan for the specification of items for a psychological test because

item writers need to know what they do
otherwise important aspects of the construct being measured may be overlooked
creativity alone usually generates bad items

37

Assessment of personality

requires knowing only as much as is necessary to accomplish the purpose of assessment

38

a test manual

is required to explain how a test is administered and scored
provides technical information about the test including test norms
outlines the theoretical or conceptual background to the test

39

Which of the following concepts would you not expect to be on the agenda of research in positive psychology?

anxiety
Concepts considered are flow, optimism, forgiveness etc.

40

Action in social situations can sometimes be understood as

the importance of the self-dynamism
attempts to reduce anxiety associated with low self-esteem
attempts to increase security of relationships

41

Integration of different personality theories

can lead to incoherence in explantion

42

The idea of mechanisms of defence

was elaborated by Freud's daughter based on his original thinking

43

To diagnose a personality disorder you need to establish that

it is present over time
it is currently present
it is pervasive
the client DOES NOT need to be aware of it

44

Assessing personality disorders is a difficult task because of persistent problems related to the ______ validity of existing instruments

concurrent

45

Projective tests are usually used to measure

personality

46

What are the common characteristics of objective methods of personality assessment?

one response for each item is chosen from two or more options
there are a set of procedures for scoring
short-answer items
NOT clinical judgement for scoring

47

What tests were based on the empirical approach?

MMPI
California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
Strong Vocational Interest Blank (SVIB)

48

What is meant by the term 'person variables' coined by Mischel

to characterise the consistencies in behaviour and thought that make for differences among individuals

49

What are the person variables as identified by Mischel & Shoda (1995)

competencies
encodings
expectancies and beliefs
affects, goals and values
self-regulatory plans

50

What are encoding strategies?

ways of perceiving the world or processing information about it

51

How are values often thought of?

in terms of the amount of reward or reinforcement potential actions produce

52

What do self-regulating systems and plans refer to?

The ways people learn to control their behaviour, and the strategies they employ and the goals they set in guiding their behaviour

53

Who was a founder of humanistic psychology?

Abraham Maslow - he began work in experimental psychology but moved to the study of personality and abnormal psychology

54

What did Maslow propose in terms of human motivations?

a pyramid of human motivations - at the base of the pyramid are physiological needs, above those are security, higher still are the needs for self-esteem and at the highest point the need to actualise self

55

Martin Seligman coined what term?

'positive psychology' to characterise the study of what was right with people rather than what was wrong

56

What were the possible levels of knowing another person according to McAdams?

Knowing at the level of the stranger (i.e. questionnaires)
Intermediate knowing (i.e. self-report; ratings)
Intimate knowing (i.e. clinical interview)

57

What are the methods for personality test construction?

content (logical/rational) method
theory approach
factor analysis
criterion referencing

58

What is a response-set?

a person's tendency, either conscious or unconscious, to respond to items in a certain way, independent of the person's true feeling about the item

59

What is personality?

'a unique, relatively consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviours' - personality is not fixed but relatively consistent

60

What do trait theorists view personality as?

a set of attributes that are identified in an effort to locate threads of consistency in behavioural patterns

61

What is the lexical hypothesis?

basically, if there is a word for a trait, it must be a real trait

62

What does Hare's Psychopathy Check-List explore?

important dimensions of psychopathic functioning that are relatively unrelated to the manifestations of criminal behaviour emphasised by the DSM criteria for antisocial PD

63

What does Wagner's Hand Test help to predict?

self-aggressive or hetero-aggressive acting-out among potentially dangerous patients

64

What does the projective hypothesis hold?

that an individual supplies structure to unstructured stimuli in a manner consistent with the individual's own unique pattern of conscious and unconscious needs, fears, desires, impulses, conflicts and ways of perceiving and responding

65

Define projective method

a technique of personality assessment in which some judgment of the assessee's personality is made on the basis of performance on a task that involves supplying some sort of structure to relatively unstructured or incomplete stimuli

66

What categories are used to score Rorschach protocols?

determinants
content
popularity
form

67

What is the spectrum hypothesis?

psychopathology represents maladaptively extreme versions of normal personality traits

68

What is the PAI?

Personality assessment inventory

69

What are the scales of the PAI?

Validity scales
treatment scales
interpersonal scales

70

What are the 3 'spectrums' assessed by the PAI?

neurotic spectrum
psychotic spectrum
behaviour disorder or impulse control