Week 13: Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 13: Language Deck (33):
1

Language

A method of communicating information including: thoughts, ideas, emotions.

2

Semanticity

The extent to which a language can use symbols to communicate meaningful messages.

3

Generativity

Using many limited amount of symbols (words/vocabulary) strung together to communicate unlimited complex ideas and thoughts.

4

Displacement

The ability to convey messages that are not tied to the immediate time, messages conveying information about the past, future or about some other time.

5

Psycholinguistics

Branch of Cognitive Psychology

The study of learning language, understanding language and making language (acquisition, comprehension and production).

6

Phonology

The rules that govern sound

7

Phonemes

Distinct units of sound that distinguish one word from another word. "rice" vs "lice"

8

Morpheme

Is the smallest unit of sound that has meaning. -ed is a morpheme that can be added onto another free morpheme and makes the meaning change into past tense.

9

Pragmatics

The social rules of language that allows people to communicate meaningfully in different situations and for different purposes.

10

Syntax

How words are strung together to form sentences and the rules of grammar.

11

Articulators

Structures of the jaw that make speech
- tongue
- lips
- soft palate
- hard palate

12

Coarticulation

Individual phonemes are not distinct and can change depending on what sounds come before and after it.

13

IDT (Infant Directed Talk)

An exaggerated,emotionally expressive way of verbally or non verbally communicating with babies/infants/children.

It helps children differentiate between positive and negative tones and also is a key in understanding words and language overall.

14

Overextend

When an infant is acquiring language and confuses the pragmatics (meaning in different situations) of labelling by generalizing content to a wider meaning than appropriate.

THINK: Marcus saying "baa" to any farm animal

15

Underextend

When an infant is acquiring language and confuses the pragmatics (meaning in different situations) of labelling by limiting content to a more specific meaning than appropriate.

THINK: Parker saying "Parker, other parker" instead of Parker and Nelson.

16

Telegraphic Speech

Phrases that are strung together with only nouns and verbs, in the correct order, that communicate a thought. (Telegraphs charged per letter so you try to convey the message in as little letters possible).

THINK: "Bring laundry"

17

Nativism

The linguistics theory that children are born with an innate knowledge of grammar (Nature not nurture, Noam Chompsky)

18

FOXP2

Serves as a proof to genetics vs nurture (proves the Nativist Theory)

The gene found on chromosome 7, discovered by Dr. Fisher that explained an interesting language disorder rooted in speech articulation. The KE family can think about a task and perform the task but they can not describe how to do the task. It will cone out as jumbled incoherent noises.

All mammals share this gene and it is thought to have diverged only 3 times over a 75 million year evolutionary period.

19

Critical Periods

The linguistics theory that children must be exposed to language during a certain period of time- the first years of life and before puberty -in order to acquire and possess language (nurture not nature). Genie proves the Critical Period Hypothesis.

20

Interactionist Theory

The linguistic theory that language is possessed through the interaction of many biological and social influences.

Belief that vocabulary spurt at 18 months isn't a coincidence- it is the same time where children begin to reason, have complex thoughts and as a result of this, learn many new words.

21

Complexity

Supports the Interactionist Theory saying that instead of grammar being innately dispositioned within us, it is bound to happen as a natural progression as communication evolves into something so complex. Just as bees don't intend to make a hexagon shaped honey comb...it just is the most efficient shape when circles and tightly squeezed together.

Grammar is a property emerging from the complexity of a growing vocabulary.

22

Social Process

Supports the Interactionist Theory saying that he environment you are in forces language to be acquired in order to socialize and be part of the community. Explains why children so easily learn different languages of native tongue instead of one universal programmed language humans created.

23

The Clever Hans effect

Thinking that animals are using language when really they are reacting from visual clues so subtle that the trainer may not realize he is giving them off.

24

The Clever Hans effect

Thinking that animals are using language when really they are reacting from visual clues so subtle that the trainer may not realize he is giving them off.

25

Birdsong -subsong

Unstructured, low, rambling vocalizations made by baby birds (much like human babbling).

26

Wernicke's Area

Part of the brain in the left hemisphere that is responsible for the understanding of words and associated with the meaning of words.

27

Wernicke's Aphasia

A language disorder in which Wernicke'd area is not functioning normally. The affected person speaks with no accent, correct syntax, intonation, demeanour but has trouble understanding what other people are saying and can not understand their own speech.

Sounds fluent like a mad-lib missing words.

28

Broca's Area

Part of the frontal lobe in the brain where speech articulation is controlled and produces sounds that compose words.

29

Broca's Aphasia

A language disorder affecting Broca's area. The affected person speaks with long pauses, stutters and simple telegraphic phrases. Capable of understanding, thinking and carrying out a task but can not describe it.

30

Stages of speech acquisition in children

1-2 months cooing
4-10 months babbling
8-16 months single words
24 months double words
24+ months complete meaningful phrases

31

Cerebellum

Responsible for organizing and coordinating speech

32

Basil ganglia

Responsible for articulating of speech and using grammatically correct phrases

33

Hippocampus

Responsible for encoding semantics.