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Flashcards in Week 4 Deck (39):
1

Risk Factors

How predisposed a person is to having a mental disorder. There are 3 factors.

Biological

Psychological

Socio-cultural

2

Clinically significant

A measure of how marked, substantial or significant the symptoms are that the person would benefit from professional treatment. This is judged by a clinician.

3

DSM-IV-TR

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (The IV is 4, TR is text revision)

The primary North American Reference for mental disorders. 4th edition.

4

Three-prong test

Test to determine clinical significance.

Ask yourself three things to determine if the individual has a mental disorder:

1. Does the behaviour interfere with normal daily life?

2. Are the behaviours expected reactions to their environments?

3. Are the behaviours freely chosen or are they a manifestation of dysfunction?

5

Anxiety Disorders

Category of Mental Disorder:

An irrational fear of something or a situation that isn't actually dangerous.

- Specific Phobia
- Panic Disorder (panic attacks are different)
- Agoraphobia
- Social Phobia/Social Anxiety
- OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
- PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder)
- GAD (General Anxiety Disorder)

6

Specific Phobia

An irrational fear of a particular stimuli or situation that presents no danger.

THINK: heights, dogs, spiders, sharks

7

Panic Disorder

Experiencing panic attacks without any stimuli or feeling of fear.

8

Panic Attack

A physiological reaction to stimuli that presents no real threat.

THINK: sweating, heart rate increase, shortness of breath.

9

Agoraphobia

The fear of experiencing symptoms of a panic attack in public and being evaluated by others during the attack.

10

Social Phobia/ Social Anxiety

Experiencing symptoms of anxiety from being in a social situation of from the fear of being evaluated by others.

THINK: They'll think I'm boring.

11

Obsessions

Re-occuring and unwanted thoughts or images that constantly come to mind even though they are known to be irrational.

12

Compulsions

Repetitive acts or rituals that must be carried out in order for the individual to feel like they are reducing their anxiety.

13

OCD

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Usually have obsessions or compulsions but not both.

14

PTSD

Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Occurs after a traumatic experience but prolongs for longer than should. Re-occuring flashbacks, dreams and make the individual re-experience the traumatic event and is triggered by specific stimuli that remind them of the event.

Symptoms: trouble sleeping, trouble concentrating, triggered by specific stimuli, flashbacks, feeling that they live in a dangerous world, vulnerability, unable to love or feel close to others.

15

GAD

General Anxiety Disorder

Constant worry of everyday events. Triggered by anything.

Symptoms: trouble sleeping, trouble concentrating, constant worry, everyday triggers.

16

Somatoform Disorders

Category of Mental Disorder:

Involve physical symptoms of a medical illness although no medical cause can be detected.

- Somatization Disorder
- Undifferentiated Somatization Disorder
- Conversion Disorder
- Pain Disorder
- Hypochondriasis
- Body Dysmorphic

SUCPHB

17

Somatization Disorder

Lots of physical symptoms for several years that can not be explained of medical causes. Symptoms have to be - gastro-intestinal, sexual, pseudo-neurological.

18

Undifferentiated Somatization Disorder

Physical symptoms for at least 6 months with no explanation due to medical cause. But doesn't meet the threshold to be considered a somatization disorder.

19

Conversion

Loss of motor control or sensory functioning that appear to be a neurological condition but no evidence due to medical causes. Must be a psychological disorder due to a psychological trauma.

THINK: Little boy in the secret garden

20

Pain Disorder

Significant pain after a psychological trauma

21

Hypochondriasis

Preoccupation to having a serious medical condition despite evidence of not having one.

22

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Preoccupation with a part of the body. Thought that it is defective (imagined or exaggerated).

THINK: toe in killbill

23

Dissociative Disorders

Category of Mental Disorder:

Involve loss or confusion of consciousness, identity, memory, perception.

- Dissociative Amnesia
- Dissociative Fugue
- Dissociative Identity Disorder
- Depersonalization Disorder

AFID

24

Dissociative Amnesia

In response to a traumatic event, forgetting important personal info.

25

Dissociative Fugue

One day, for no apparent reason leaving work/home and moving away, forgetting who you are and where you came from. Making new identity.

26

Dissociative Identity Disorder

DID

Having the presence of 2 or more distinct personalities within an individual. "Alters" Different behaviour guided by diff personalities at diff times.

THINK: football player video

27

Depersonalization Disorder

Sensation that one is detached or outside one's body.

28

Personality Disorders

Category of Mental Disorder:

Hardest to diagnose and most controversial of the disorders.

- Anti-social Personality Disorder
- Borderline Personality Disorder

29

Anti-social Personality Disorder

- lack of empathy/ remorse
- lying
- cheating
- law breaking

30

Borderline Personality Disorder

- low self worth
- unstable relationships
- mood control problems
- inflict pain on themselves
- fear of abandonment

31

Abnormal Psychology

The study of mental illness

32

Maladaptive Behaviour

This type of behaviour determines if the individual can be considered "abnormal" or just a bit quirky.

- Behaviour causes stress to self/others
- Behaviour impairs daily functioning
- Behaviour increases the risk of detrimental consequences: injury, death, legal problems, punishment

33

Etiology

The origins/causes of symptoms of mental disorders (In the DSM-IV each disorder has an etiology).

34

Prognosis

How the symptoms will persist or change over time if no treatment is sought out. (In the DSM-IV each disorder is given a prognosis).

35

Insanity Defence

A legal term. Stating that the criminal did not know the difference between right and wrong at the time of the crime.

THINK: Mom who drowned her 5 babies showed no remorse and thought she was acting in the right mindset where some criminals show remorse for their acts.

36

Stigma

The cultural ideas that go along with "labelling" a mental disorder. Negative stereotypes which can lead to discrimination.

37

Categorical vs. Dimensional

Way of viewing a mental disorder.

Categorical: Do they have it? Yes or No.

Dimensional: Are some symptoms present? Do they show some signs of a mental disorder but not all symptoms? Can they be places on a spectrum or continuum?

38

Medical model & Biopsychosocial Model

Used together to identify, diagnose and recommend treatment for psychological disorders. Medical - just like a medical condition like diabetes, psychological disorders have symptoms and probable causes.

Biological - there are underlying physiological reasons that explain why individuals with mental disorders feel the way they do

Psychological - attitude and outlook on life with negative beliefs are all psychological factors

Social - The environment that has facilitated or helped to prevent a psychological disorder

39

Static Factors vs. Dynamic Factors

Static Factors are things that you can't change. They alway stay the same

THINK: prior convictions (will never change)

Dynamic Factors are things that can be changed and these will be targeted in treatment

THINK: attitudes and mental heath