Week 15: Development Flashcards Preview

PSYCH > Week 15: Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 15: Development Deck (30):
0

The germinal period

8-10 days after egg and sperm unite and lasts for 2 weeks

1

Haploid

Half chromosomes

2

Diploid

Full set of chromosomes

3

Gametes

Mature reproductive cell (haploid) egg and sperm

4

Zygote

The new cell at conception from the formation of the egg and sperm

5

Cleavage

Cell dividing into 2 then 4 then 8. Occurs 24 hours after fertilization

6

Morula

Spherical mass of divided cells

7

Stem cells

Unspecialized cells

8

Inner cell mass

The inner cells of the morula which will eventually become the embryo

9

Trophoblast

Outer cell lining of the blastocyst and will eventually form a protective layer around the embryo > extra embryonic layer & placenta that transports nutrients, oxygen and metabolizes across the membrane.

10

Blastocyst

Stage that a fertilized egg reaches 5-6 days

11

Neurulation

The process of a neural tube forming within an embryo > formation of the nervous system and the brain and CNS.

12

Neurogenesis

6-7 weeks after conception.

13

Embryonic Period

Eight weeks long and begins as soon as implantation within the uterine wall occurs.

14

Neural migration

Process of the movement, connection and organization of neural cells to form the mature brain.

- genetic instructions
- time & place of neurogenesis
- interactions with glial cells
- chemical genetic and environ signals
- largely unknown!

15

Embryonic development occurs in what directions?

Cephalocaudaul - most intensely at the head and work downwards

Proximodistal - from the centre of the organism outwards

16

Cell apoptosis

Programmed cell death that is a crucial part of development.

THINK: webbed cells between fingers must be reabsorbed in order to have digits instead of a fop appendage.

17

Foetal period

9th week after conception to birth.
Beginning of the foetal period: 30 grams x 4cm (my eraser)

10 weeks: breathing movements to practice muscle for birth not to obtain oxygen

4th month: sleep and wake patterns are detected and large enough for the movements to be noticed

5th month: vestibular system (balance & spatial coordination), responsive to sound, foetal heart beat changes in response to mothers voice, recognizes mothers voice

6th month: 700 grams and 30cm can be premature but obvi better in utero

6-8 month: heartbeat responsive to light stimulation, tastes (show a preference to foods that mom ate while in womb) and movement stops (to facilitate growth of inhibitory neural pathways)

8-9 month: grows 250grams per week until birth

18

Cat in the hat study

- memory in prenatal development
- mom read cat in hat 2 x a day
- after birth baby was given soother that would play cat and hat story or another story read by mom depending on the amount of sucking
- baby adjusted sucking to plays at in hat

19

Teratogen

Alcohol, heavy metal - mercury, some medications.

- the earlier the foetus is exposed the worse the effects

- will affect very mother and foetus differently

- the greater the amount and the longer it is exposed it will have a greater affect.

20

Famous teratogens

Alcohol > Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders

Smoking > lowered IQ and behavioural problems

Medication > Thalidomide was prescribed to mothers and left devastating effects

Diseases > rubella in prenatal infants can cause congenital heart disease, deafness, blindness or mental retardation. Influenza has been correlated with schizophrenia.

21

Reflexes

In infants there are many types of reflexes that are eventually replaced with voluntary behaviours.

22

Explanation for increasing cognitive complexity?

- not the number of neurons since it's the greatest when we are born (18 weeks after conception)

- complexity of existing neurons: synaptogenesis occurs at a rapid pace after we are born to form all of the synapses we will ever have from birth to age 1.

23

Synaptic plasticity

Neurons can grow or shed connections to other neurons in order to accommodate their own activity levels.

24

Synaptic pruning

The process of selectively eliminating synapses formed during the first year to make it more efficient.

25

Experience-dependant plasticity

Nervous system rewiring itself increasing or decreasing or forming new stronger connections based on its use.

26

Experience-expecting plasticity

Needing an event or critical period to shape a development of the brain. Language critical period. If it is missed the development is lost.

27

Amblyopia

Anna had a mild case

Loss of ability in one eye to see details.

28

Myelination

Formation of myelin sheath (made of glial cells) around axons of neurons to insulate and also to increase the speed at which neurons transmit information

- indicate the age of a brain

29

Executive functioning

Goal-oriented, planning and problem solving behaviour. Behaviour that regulates and controls other behaviour.