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Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (57):
1

The 5 Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research

1) Reliability, Objectivity, Validity

2) Bias (using techniques that reduce bias)
3) Generalizability
4) Public (by publishing research)
5) Replicated

2

Subjective

Knowledge of the event being shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, events, experiences or mood.

3

Objective

All scientific experiments strive for objectivity.

Assumption that certain facts of the world can be tested independently from the individual who describes them (the researcher).

4

Objective Measurements

The measurement of an entity or behaviour that is consistent across all instruments and observers.

Usually to a certain degree/margin of error.

5

Variable

An object, concept or event being measured

6

Self-reporting

A method of data collection

Responses are provided directly from the people who are being studied.

Through surveys, interviews, face-to-face, questionnaires, etc).

7

Operational Definitions

Needed in a quality scientific study.

Statements to describe the procedures/operations and specific measures that are used to record operations.

8

Reliability

Consistant, stable results

9

Validity

Measuring what you intended to measure

10

Generalizability

The degree to which results can be applied to real life applications/ individuals or events.

11

Ecology Validity

The degree to which results obtained in a lab study can be repeated in a natural environment.

12

Hawthorne Effect

In the 1920's the Hawthorne Electric Company factory looked at how changing the environment affects productivity. Did not work because factory workers knew they were being watched and changed their behaviour so that productivity increased.

When behaviour changes as a result of being observed.

13

Single-Blind Study

When the participants do not know the purpose of the study or what type of treatment they have received.

14

Double-Blind Study

More effective than a single blind study.

Both the subject and researcher are unaware of the purpose of the study and the type of treatment.

15

Peer-Review

Peers are other experts in the specific field of study.

When submitting research for publication other experts in that field of study critique the research.

16

Replication

The process of repeating an experiment AND getting the same results.

17

Anecdotal Evidence

An individuals testimony about an observation event that is used to make a claim as evidence.

18

Appeal to Authority

The belief that an "expert's" claim is the right one when no supporting data or scientific evidence is present.

19

Appeal to Common Sense

A claim that appears to be sound but has no supporting scientific evidence.

20

Appeal to Tradition

"We have always done it that way"

A claim that follows tradition but has no supporting scientific evidence.

21

Appeal to Novelty

"It's the latest thing"

A claim that seems right because of popularity but has no supporting scientific evidence"

22

Confounding Variables

Variables that are outside of the researchers control that will affect the the results of the study.

23

Dependant Variables

What you are measuring and recording in the experiment.

The variable that "depends" on the independent variable.

24

Independent Variable

What the researcher manipulates to distinguish between two groups (control & experimental).

25

Experimental Group

Group that is exposed to the independent variable.

26

Control Group

Group that does not receive treatment.
Serves as a comparison.

27

Case Study

In depth report about the details of a specific case.

28

Quasi-Experimental Research

Selection/ assignment is based on predetermined characteristic for the purpose of the study.

Ex: Testing for something only in male gender you must select/assign groups based on gender.

29

Naturalistic Observation

Unobtrusively observing and recording behaviour as it occurs in the subjects' natural environment.

Can happen anywhere.

30

Correlation Research

Testing to see if two variables are somehow related- the degree of association between 2 or more variables.

Correlation does not IMPLY CAUSATION.
Just because two variables are associated does not mean that one is responsible for the other.

31

Scatterplots

The way that correlation studies are displayed in a graph form.

32

Positive Correlation

Both variables occur together:
increase together
decrease together

Ex: Training and Race Results

33

Negative Correlation

The more of one variable the less of the other.
while one increases the other decreases.

Ex: Training and Fatness

34

Random Assignment

A technique for dividing samples into 2 or more groups.

35

Convenience Samples

Instead of random assignment, researchers use samples that are in groups already.

Example: Psych 100 students for 4th year experiments.

36

Demand Characteristics

Inadvertent clues given off by the experimenter or the experimental procedure that provide info about how the subject is expected to behave.

Example: heavy backpack study.

37

Placebo Effect

A measurable and experienced improvement in health/behaviour that can not be attributed to medication/treatment.

38

Population

Group that researchers want to generalize about.

39

Sample

Group of population members.

40

Scientific Misconduct

When individuals fabricate or manipulate the data to fit the desired results.

41

IRB

Institutional Review Board

An organization of officials and researchers that are responsible with the protection of human research participants

42

How does the IRB protect humans?

1) Evaluate whether the benefits of the research outweigh the risks posed to volunteers

2) Require volunteers to agree to participate

43

Deception

A "white lie" in psych.

Misleading the subject/ only partially informing subjects of the true topic of study or of the hypothesis.

44

Debriefing

Fully explaining the nature of the study and also why deception was used.

45

Informed Consent

A volunteer must know:
- all the risks of the study
- the duration of the study
- the potential risks
- what the researcher has done to eliminate those risks

46

Central Tendency

Measuring the centre point of distribution by
- mean
-median
-mode

47

Descriptive Statistics

A set of techniques used to analyze organize summarize and interpret data.

48

Frequency

How often something occurs.

49

Hypothesis Test

Evaluates whether the differences in groups is meaningful or if it is just due to random chance.

50

Mean

The average in the data.

51

Median

50th percentile value.

52

Mode

Most frequently occurring value.

53

Positively Skewed Distribution

When the graph has more values on the left and a tail to the right.

54

Negatively Skewed Distribution

When the graph has more values on the right and a tail to the left.

55

Variability

The spread of the data.

56

Standard Deviation

Measure of the variability AROUND the mean.

57

Statistical Significance

Evaluates whether the means are farther apart than you would expect them to be.