Flashcards in Week 2 Deck (57):
The 5 Characteristics of Quality Scientific Research
1) Reliability, Objectivity, Validity
2) Bias (using techniques that reduce bias)
4) Public (by publishing research)
Knowledge of the event being shaped by prior beliefs, expectations, events, experiences or mood.
All scientific experiments strive for objectivity.
Assumption that certain facts of the world can be tested independently from the individual who describes them (the researcher).
The measurement of an entity or behaviour that is consistent across all instruments and observers.
Usually to a certain degree/margin of error.
An object, concept or event being measured
A method of data collection
Responses are provided directly from the people who are being studied.
Through surveys, interviews, face-to-face, questionnaires, etc).
Needed in a quality scientific study.
Statements to describe the procedures/operations and specific measures that are used to record operations.
Consistant, stable results
Measuring what you intended to measure
The degree to which results can be applied to real life applications/ individuals or events.
The degree to which results obtained in a lab study can be repeated in a natural environment.
In the 1920's the Hawthorne Electric Company factory looked at how changing the environment affects productivity. Did not work because factory workers knew they were being watched and changed their behaviour so that productivity increased.
When behaviour changes as a result of being observed.
When the participants do not know the purpose of the study or what type of treatment they have received.
More effective than a single blind study.
Both the subject and researcher are unaware of the purpose of the study and the type of treatment.
Peers are other experts in the specific field of study.
When submitting research for publication other experts in that field of study critique the research.
The process of repeating an experiment AND getting the same results.
An individuals testimony about an observation event that is used to make a claim as evidence.
Appeal to Authority
The belief that an "expert's" claim is the right one when no supporting data or scientific evidence is present.
Appeal to Common Sense
A claim that appears to be sound but has no supporting scientific evidence.
Appeal to Tradition
"We have always done it that way"
A claim that follows tradition but has no supporting scientific evidence.
Appeal to Novelty
"It's the latest thing"
A claim that seems right because of popularity but has no supporting scientific evidence"
Variables that are outside of the researchers control that will affect the the results of the study.
What you are measuring and recording in the experiment.
The variable that "depends" on the independent variable.
What the researcher manipulates to distinguish between two groups (control & experimental).
Group that is exposed to the independent variable.
Group that does not receive treatment.
Serves as a comparison.
In depth report about the details of a specific case.
Selection/ assignment is based on predetermined characteristic for the purpose of the study.
Ex: Testing for something only in male gender you must select/assign groups based on gender.
Unobtrusively observing and recording behaviour as it occurs in the subjects' natural environment.
Can happen anywhere.
Testing to see if two variables are somehow related- the degree of association between 2 or more variables.
Correlation does not IMPLY CAUSATION.
Just because two variables are associated does not mean that one is responsible for the other.
The way that correlation studies are displayed in a graph form.
Both variables occur together:
Ex: Training and Race Results
The more of one variable the less of the other.
while one increases the other decreases.
Ex: Training and Fatness
A technique for dividing samples into 2 or more groups.
Instead of random assignment, researchers use samples that are in groups already.
Example: Psych 100 students for 4th year experiments.
Inadvertent clues given off by the experimenter or the experimental procedure that provide info about how the subject is expected to behave.
Example: heavy backpack study.
A measurable and experienced improvement in health/behaviour that can not be attributed to medication/treatment.
Group that researchers want to generalize about.
Group of population members.
When individuals fabricate or manipulate the data to fit the desired results.
Institutional Review Board
An organization of officials and researchers that are responsible with the protection of human research participants
How does the IRB protect humans?
1) Evaluate whether the benefits of the research outweigh the risks posed to volunteers
2) Require volunteers to agree to participate
A "white lie" in psych.
Misleading the subject/ only partially informing subjects of the true topic of study or of the hypothesis.
Fully explaining the nature of the study and also why deception was used.
A volunteer must know:
- all the risks of the study
- the duration of the study
- the potential risks
- what the researcher has done to eliminate those risks
Measuring the centre point of distribution by
A set of techniques used to analyze organize summarize and interpret data.
How often something occurs.
Evaluates whether the differences in groups is meaningful or if it is just due to random chance.
The average in the data.
50th percentile value.
Most frequently occurring value.
Positively Skewed Distribution
When the graph has more values on the left and a tail to the right.
Negatively Skewed Distribution
When the graph has more values on the right and a tail to the left.
The spread of the data.
Measure of the variability AROUND the mean.