Week 21: Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 21: Personality Deck (19):

What is Personality?

A pattern of thinking and interacting that is unique to every individual and remains relatively consistent over time and across situation.


A pattern of consistent thoughts feelings and behaviours that characterize each person as a unique an individual.


The study of personality

Focuses on the stable differences between behaviours, thoughts and interactions (since minor changes in these characteristics do not indicate different personalities). THINK: if you are an outgoing person but tired and so you aren't friendly for 1 day.


Personality testing is hard because...

Hard to define personality! But all tests must be:

STANDARDIZED- same distribution, same instructions, same environment of testing

RELIABLE- taken today, taken in 6months must be same result

VALID- measuring what was set out to be measured


MMPI-2 test

Minnesota multiphasic inventory test

-objectively scored test
-500 multiple choice t/f questions about yourself


NEO-PI-3 test

Neuroticism Extroversion and Openness personality inventory test asks a series of statements that you can agree or disagree with on a five point scale. Now based on the 5 factor model.
-240 statements
-respond with strongly disagree to strongly agree


Rorschach test

- diagnostic test (not objective)
- ink blots presented in paper
- participants asked what they see in the ink blots
- (like clouds in the sky) the idea is that they project their personality into what they describe and see in the ink lot
- attempts to score objectively but controversial
- used to diagnose psychosis and also used in therapy more, less so as a personality test


Meyers Briggs Type Indicator

-limited validity & reliability
-took one online and it told me things that I didn't agree with
-measures personality types and cognitive types
-used on dating sites


Thematic Apperception Test

-projective test
-used for therapy and diagnosis more than a personality determinator
-ambiguous images are shown and participant makes a story about the images (the idea is that they will project their personality onto the made up story)
- no formal scoring system


Factor analysis

Statistical process/method that is used to reveal the underlying categories or factors that influence a data set.

10 event decathlon (divided up into speed events, strength events).
Measurements of limb size (divided up into body size).

Carried out by measuring the variances between all items and grouping the ones that are highly correlated.


Raymond Cattell

-used factor analysis with 18 000 adjectives that Gordan Allport used to describe personality in the 1930's
-came up with 16 traits


16-PF Questionnaire

-Almost 200 statements to agree or disagree with
-multiple choice test
-uses the 16 traits developed by Cattell

Problems: redundant traits, long, complex


Five-factor model

-Factor analysis has improved with technology (obvi)
-capable of more complex number crunching
-found that there are really 5 factors that encompass personality


1. Openness to experience
2. Conscientiousness
3. Extraversion
4. Agreeableness
5. Neuroticism


Openness to experience

LOW: conventional, down-to-earth (but I don't think that fits)

HIGH: creative, imaginative, curious, non-conforming

This personality factor describes a person's willingness to try new things and having a wide-set of interests



LOW: unreliable, spontaneous, sloppy

HIGH: ambitious, reliable, attention to detail

This personality factor describes how organized, methodical and ambitious (to achieve a goal) a person is.



LOW: likes to be alone, solitary, introverted

HIGH: sociable, optimistic, affectionate

This personality factor describes how talkative, outgoing and assertive a person is.



LOW: rude, uncooperative, irritable.

HIGH: trusting, supportive, team-minded.

This personality factor describes how kind, affectionate, sympathetic a person is.



LOW: calm, stable, secure.

HIGH: worried, insecure, anxious.

This personality factor describes the extent to which a person is anxious or tense. A high score for neuroticism generally means the person exhibits anxiety.


Genetics + environment =


Remember that if a person has a bad temperament they will elicit negative reactions- making their environment negative also.


Sigmund Freud

A German psychiatrist who developed psychodynamic theory and used psychoanalytic theory to describe personality and techniques that were used to analyze others personality.