Flashcards in Week 3 Deck (28):
Th1 differentiation factors
Induced by IL-12 and IFN-α.
Lymphokines including IFNγ which draws in and classically activates (M1) macrophages
M1 macrophage Activation
Activated by Th1 releasing IFNγ.
M1 macrophage secretion
cytokines include tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and IL-1 to mediate inflammation
Th 17 cells induction
induced by TGF-β and IL-21
Th 17 cells function
IL-17 release and main job is mediating inflammation and maintaining the integrety of mucosal surfaces
Th2 Cells function
circulate through the blood until they encounter their antigen, secrete IL-4 and IL-13 which alternatively activates(M2) macrophages and are more involved in healing. IL- also attracts eosinophils, and stimulates B cells to produce IgE.
helps to activate B cells differentiate into plasma cells. Helps in differentiation of antibodies. Promotes IgA in the gut and IgG in the spleen.
Th 2 induction
DC 2 and Il4
Suppresses Th1, Th2, Th17, Tfh by contact and soluble factors (IL-10, TGFBeta)
Cytotoxic (killer) T cells
Detects MHC class I and kills cells by binding to CD 95 on the target cell, leading to apoptosis, or it can secrete granzymes and other proteases called perforins which trigger apoptosis.
Cytotoxic T cell Induction
Come in contact with a DC, and need IL-2 to be produced from Th1, and for conversion into memory cells it needs IL-21.
Has both MHC class I and II, and can activate both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.
Memory T cells
Are after a response to antigen, T cell number declines, and are memory T cells which can replace themselves as well as rapidly differentiate into effector cells when re-exposed to low antigen concentrations
A complex of molecules associated with the TCR. It is important in downstream signaling after T cell receptor binds its antigen.
CD 4 molecule
has four Ig-like domains, binds to a conserved region on class II antigen, binds to signal transduction molecule p56 and also binds to the zeta chains of CD3.
alpha beta heterodimer or aa homodimer with one Ig-like domain held together by a disulfide bond. Binds to a conserved Class I antigen
CD4+ T cell CD2 binds
CD4+ T cell TCR-CD3 binds
MHC class II
CD4+ T cell p56kk CD4 binds
MHC class II
CD4+ T cell CD 28 binds
CD 80 or CD 86
CD4+ T cell LFA-1 binds
CD8+ T cell CD2 binds
CD8+ T cell TCR-CD3 binds
CD8+ T cell CD8 binds
MHC class I
CD8+ T cell CD 28 binds
CD80 or CD 86